Hate the Things God Hates


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A key to knowing God’s will is to learn to hate everything which He hates. This key is neglected by many and results in them being deceived about many aspects of His wonderful will.


Biblical verses on astrology


In Isaiah 47:12-14, God condemns astrologers: “Stand now with your enchantments and the multitude of your sorceries, in which you have labored from your youth – perhaps you will be able to profit, perhaps you will prevail. You are wearied in the multitude of your counsels; let now the astrologers, the stargazers, and the monthly prognosticators stand up and save you from these things that shall come upon you. Behold, they shall be as stubble, the fire shall burn them; they shall not deliver themselves from the power of the flame; it shall not be a coal to be warmed by, nor a fire to sit before!”

In Daniel 1:20, 2:2, 2:10, 2:27, 4:7 and 5:7, astrology is linked to the wicked practices of sorcery, soothsaying and supernatural magic.


The early Christians strongly opposed astrology


The early Christians strongly opposed the wicked practice of astrology. The following early Christian writers condemned astrology:


a)        Tertullian,  (i)         “On Idolatry, Chapter 9,

(ii)        “A Treatise on the Soul”, Chapter 31 and

(iii)       “The Five Books Against Marcion”, Book 1, Chapter 18

b)        Recognitions of Clement, (i) Book 9, Chapter 12, “Astrologers”,

(ii)        Book 9, Chapter 17 “Astrological Lore” and

(iii)       Book 9, Chapter 19 “Refutation of Astrology”

c)         Hippolytus, “The Refutation of All Heresies”,

(i)         Book 4, Chapter 2 “Doctrines concerning Aeons; The Chaldean Astrology; Heresy Derivable from It”,

(ii)        Book 4, Chapter 12 “Waste of Mental Energy in the Systems of the Astrologers” and Chapter 50 “Folly of Astrology” and

(iii)       Book 5, Chapter 10 “The Peratic Heresy Nominally Different from Astrology, but Really the Same System Allegorized”

d)        Origen,      “Against Celsus”, Book 6, Chapter 80

e)        Lactantius, (i)         “The Divine Institutes of the False Worship of the Gods”, Book 2, Chapter 17 “That Astrology, Soothsaying, and Similar Arts are the Invention of Demons” and

(ii)        “The Epitome of the Divine Institutes”, Chapter 28


Christians compromising about astrology for many centuries


But note throughout the Middle Ages and the Reformation period, many Roman Catholics and Greek Orthodox and throughout the Reformation, many Protestants were deceived by the claims of non-university-trained and university-trained medical physicians about the usage of astrology in medicine.


A “Christian” university lecturer in astrology in the 600’s A.D.


In 610 A.D., the Emperor of the supposedly “Christian” Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire invited Stephen of Alexandria (approx. 550-635 A.D.) to come to Constantinople, the capital city, to assume the title “Universal teacher” and give lectures there. [1] These lectures probably happened at the university at Constantinople. [2] Patriarch Sergius, the Archbishop of Constantinople was one of Stephen’s patrons. [3]

Stephen was an “expert in philosophy, medicine, ecclesiastical computus, astronomy, astrology and horoscopy.” [4] Stephen wrote a treatise on astrology and horoscopy. [5] Horoscopy is the devising of a chart of the stars and planets, especially at the moment of a child’s birth by which the astologer attempts to predict the character, potential abilities and future key life events of the individual. Also he was famous for his teaching on medicine. [6]

Sophronius, the future Patriarch of Jerusalem and John Moschus, Sophronius’ companion heard Stephen lecture on medicine between 581-584 A.D. [7] Parts of some of Stephen’s lectures on various set texts in the medical curriculum such as Galen’s “Therapeutica, ad Glauconem” and Hippocrates’ “Aphorisms” have been printed in Germany in the 1800’s and 1900’s. [8] Stephen also wrote a treatise on ecclesiastical computus. [9] An ecclesiastical computus is

The fact that the supposedly Christian Emperor with the support of the Archbishop of Constantinople – the main leader of the churches in the Eastern Roman Empire at the time, appointed a man who popularised astrology and horoscopes as one of the most important teachers in the capital city, shows how backslidden the leaders of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Church within it had become by the early 600’s A.D.

It is little wonder that God permitted the Muslims to conquer large parts of the Eastern Roman Empire beginning from the early 600’s A.D. The Muslims conquered Syria, Egypt, Palestine, North Africa and Spain in the 600’s A.D. In 636 A.D., the Muslim Arabic armies defeated a large 100,000 man Byzantine Roman army. [10]

Other examples of Christians compromising about astrology


Between 668-690 A.D., at a school in Canterbury in England at which law, medicine and other subjects were taught, one of the teachers there was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, Theodore who was “learned in both sacred and secular literature; fluent in Greek and Latin”. [11] One student there named St John of Beverley recorded, “I remember that Archbishop Theodore…used to say that it was dangerous to bleed at a time when the light of the moon and the pull of the tides was increasing.” [12] Theodore was referring here to the mixing of astrology with the foolish ancient dangerous pagan medical practice of deliberately making patients bleed as a supposed cure.

The Persian medical physician Haly Abbas taught that astrology should be used as a guide for prescribing medicines. [13] His writings were translated into Latin in the 1000’s by Constantine and became very popular among medical doctors in Europe in the years after this. [14] Foolish Europeans followed the pagan teachings of medical doctors about this issue instead of obeying what the Bible teaches.

Hildegard of Bingen (1099-1179) was canonised by the Roman Catholic Church as a “Saint”. She urged all parents to remember the time of their child’s conception so that they could later do astrological predictions for the child. [15] McLaughlin records that Hildegard marvelled: “at the fact that men who know enough not to sow crops in mid-summer or the dead of winter, beget offspring at any time without regard to the proper period in their own lives or to the ‘time of the moon’; defective children are the likely consequence of such heedlessness (Causae et curae, pp. 17-18: 77-78).” [16]

The English poet Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) wrote of a well qualified medical doctor being especially skilful in using astrology as a part of his medical practice. [17]

In the supposedly Christian universities of Italy, Paris and Montpellier in France and some other places in Europe in the 1500’s, medical courses included a detailed study of astrology. [18] At these well-respected universities, the writings of the pagans Euclid, Ptolemy, Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen and others were used to support this foolish unbiblical compromising with the use of astrology in medicine by churchgoing academics and medical physicians. [19]






The pagan origins – Aristotle, Hippocrates, Hesiod and Galen


In his writing “History of Animals”, Aristotle stated that there was a close relationship between the waning of the moon and women’s monthly menstrual periods. [20] He said that because of this, wiseacres or foolish know-it-alls say the moon is feminine. [21] In his “Generation of Animals”, Aristotle wrote: “The period is not accurately defined in women, but tends to return during the waning of the moon”. [22]

Aristotle tried to give some scientific credibility to his nonsense about the moon’s effects on women’s periods by linking it to the equally ridiculous popular Greek medical theory taught by Hippocrates and others about heat, coldness, moistness and dryness in human bodies: “Also the fact that menstruation occurs in the course of nature rather when the month is waning is due to the same causes. For this time of the month is colder and moister because of the waning and failure of the moon; as the sun makes winter and summer in the year as a whole, so does the moon in the month. This is not due to the turning of the moon, but it grows warmer as the light increases and colder as it wanes.” [23]

In his writing “On Plants”, Aristotle taught that the stars exercised a powerful influence on the seeds of plants: “…from it (the ground) will come forth the form of their seeds through the powerful influence of the stars.” [24]

In his writing “Airs, Waters and Places”, the famous Greek physician Hippocrates wrote that the stars had a powerful effect on our health and astrology was useful in predicting the states of our health: “With the passage of time and the change of the seasons, he would know what epidemics to expect, both in the summer and in the winter, and what particular disadvantages threatened an individual who changed his mode of life. Being familiar with the progress of the seasons and the dates of rising and setting of the stars, he could foretell the progress of the year. Thus he would know what changes to expect in the weather and not only would he enjoy good health himself for the most part but he would be very successful in the practice of medicine. If it should be thought that this is more the business of the meteorologist, then learn that astronomy plays a very important part in medicine since the changes of the seasons produce changes in diseases…Anyone making observations and drawing deductions on these lines can foretell most of the effects which follow changes in the weather. It is particularly necessary to take precautions against great changes and it is inadvisable to give a purge, to cauterize or to cut any part of the belly until at least ten days have passed after such a change. The most dangerous times are the two solstices, especially mid-summer, and the equinoxes. Both of these latter times are considered dangerous but more especially the autumnal one. Care must also be taken at the rising of certain stars, particularly the Dog Star and Arcturus. Similarly, discretion must be exercised at the setting of the Pleiads. It is at such times that the crisis is reached in the course of diseases; some prove fatal and some are cured, but all show some kind of change and enter a new phase.” [25]

In his Aphorism 5 (Section IV), Hippocrates taught: “The administration of drugs is attended with difficulty at the rising of the Dog Star and shortly before.”

The two Solstices occur when the Sun is at its furthest distance from the Earth’s Equator on June 21 and December 21. The two Equinoxes happen when the Sun is directly above the Earth’s Equator. The Equinoxes occur on March 21-22 and September 21-22. The Dog Star is Sirius – the brightest star in the sky. Collins New Age Encyclopedia records that throughout history, many people believed the Dog Star had a profound occult influence. [26] The Pleiades are a group of stars in the Constellation of Taurus the Bull. [27] The ancient pagan Greeks believed these stars of Pleiades were daughters of Atlas – one of the Titans. [28] Titans were supposedly the children of Uranus, the god of the heavens and first king of the gods, and Ge – the Earth. [29] The pagan Greeks believed the Titans killed their father Uranus and that Atlas later rebelled against Zeus, the father of the gods. [30] Zeus then punished Atlas by making him support the universe on his shoulders. [31] As a pagan, Hippocrates would have probably believed all this superstitious nonsense also.

The pagan Greek belief that Sirius – the Dog Star – had a powerful influence on human bodies can be seen in the words of the famous ancient Greek poet Hesiod (probably 700’s B.C.). Hesiod’s beliefs spread in Greece in the centuries before Hippocrates’ time. In his writing “Works and Days”, Hesiod wrote about the supposed influence of the stars on humans “…women are full of lust, but men are weak. Their heads and limbs drained dry by Sirius. Their skin parched from the heat.” [32]

In his writings “De causis procatarcticis liber” (Book 1 Chapter 1) and “De febrium differentiis liber” (Book I), the famous Roman surgeon and physician Galen (130-200 A.D.) refers to the excessive heat which the Dog Star or Sirius supposedly generates and to this star’s influence on fever. [33] Also in his writing “De diebus decretoriis”, Galen taught about the supposed supernatural influence of the moon. [34]

In his writing “Deipnosophistae”, the ancient Greek writer Athenaeus records a medical physician named Daphnus believing in the effects of the moon on health: “…The physician Daphnus said: ‘Meals taken at night, dear friends, are more beneficial to every organism; for the celestial body of the moon suits the digestion of food’…” [35]




What university medical lecturers taught


University medical lecturers taught doctors to use astrology as an essential part of their “identification of the cause and prediction of the course and termination of an illness”. [36] The medical lecturers and practicing doctors believed that each zodiac sign related to different parts of the human body. [37] For example, Pisces ruled the feet and Cancer the lungs. [38] The physicians taught that planets such as Jupiter had beneficial effects on humans while Mars and Saturn had bad influences or put curses on people. [39] The doctors also said the position of the planets could either be favourable or unfavourable in relation to a person’s health. [40]

The physicians believed that the moon had the greatest influence of all the heavenly objects on the human body and it ruled the critical times of all acute diseases. [41] The doctors also thought that the planets and stars affected what the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates foolishly taught were the humours of the body. [42]

The below is an example of the type of medical diagnosis and prognosis that university-trained medical doctors in the 1200’s to 1500’s could have given a sick person: “The patient is ill with a foot disease because the moon is waning in Pisces and because Mars and Saturn are in opposition. The moon is moist and cold and is situated in the house governing the feet. Saturn is dry and cold and is aggravating the condition by contributing to the swelling in the feet. Our chief hope lies with Jupiter which has a generally beneficial effect and is heading toward a favourable aspect. If the patient can remain alive until the new moon, he will obtain much strength. We should use medicines which are warming applications and maybe bleed the patient on certain right days to release the patient from the bad humours from Mars and Saturn.” For a similar astrological prognosis which medical physicians in ancient times, the Middle Ages or the 1500’s and 1600’s, could have given, refer to Grell and Cunningham’s “Medicine and the Reformation.” [43]


Medical doctors who deceived others about astrology


In his Chapter 21 “Whether by Astrology those inclined to love melancholy can be known” in his book “A Treatise on Lovesickness”, the French medical doctor Jacques Ferrand (born approximately 1575 A.D.) records how numerous leading medical doctors in the Middle Ages and Renaissance periods in so-called “Christian” Europe practised and taught others the superstitions of astrology: “…judiciary astrology that is, prognostical, divinatory, or practical astrology of which there are three kinds. The first is that which predicts common changes and vicissitudes of things, such as rain, floods, fair weather, drought, plague, health, scarcity, peace, war, and similar circumstances; the second contains the method for casting nativities and horoscopes, and is therefore called genethliacal; the last teaches how to make elections concerning what times are best to build, to travel, to initiate legal proceedings, to be bled or purged – an art too superstitiously observed and taught by several physicians such as Pietro D’Abano, Paracelsus, Arnald of Villanova, Dariot and others.” [44]

In the 1500’s, Ambroise Pare, the Protestant chief royal surgeon of three French kings, taught that the various phases of the Moon greatly affected the monthly periods of younger and older women. [45] Pare also referred to astrologers and the pagan Greek philosopher Aristotle’s belief in astrology as authorities for Pare’s teaching that some severe abnormalities in babies are caused by the planets, stars and constellations. [46]

Dr William Harvey (1578-1657) was an English physician and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the College of Physicians in London. He is famous for discovering the circulation of the blood. He was the physician of the English Kings James I and Charles I.

Dr Harvey taught that the Moon had effects on human childbirth. He wrote: “Some kind of creatures which do more observe the revolutions of the Moon, do celebrate both their coitions (sexual intercourse) and (re) productions, at any time of the year whatsoever: conies, mice and women. For the Moon is said (according to Plutarch) to conduce much to the expedition of the delivery, when she is in the increase, because she then by supplying the humours does mitigate the pains.” [47] The word “humours” here refers to the ancient Greek doctor Hippocrates’ foolish quack medical theory that the human body was made of four humours or fluids – blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile – and that an excess of any of these caused disease. Hippocrates taught that the supposed cure involved reducing the amount of blood by bloodletting, reducing the bile by drugs and giving the patient enemas and medicines to cause vomiting.

In his book “The Expert Midwife”, the 16th century medical physician Jacobus Rueff wrote that children are mostly like their parents because of their parents’ seed but that the stars and planets also effect conception: “But in this case, the motion of the stars is supposed to prevail some thing, that when the seed is conceived under good aspects of the planets, this causeth an excellent shape; but when it is conceived under evil aspects, in like case it procureth an ugly shape.” [48] Rueff’s side heading to these comments was “Motions of the stars supposed a cause.” [49] Rueff was supposedly a Protestant Evangelical Christian.

James Guillemeau was one of the main surgeons of the French king in the late 1500’s and early 1600’s. He wrote a book called “Childbirth or the Happy Delivery of Women” which was translated into English in 1612.

Guillemeau and his fellow French surgeons were claiming to be the top medical brains in the field of obstetrics at the time. But note he taught that:


·           The New Moon influences women’s pregnancies. [50]

·           The delivery of a baby can be hindered by any woman in the delivery room having her fingers locked. [51]


Phillippus Paracelsus (1493-1541), Professor of Physic and Surgery at Basle in Switzerland wrote many medical and occult treatises and taught that the stars influenced people’s health. [52] Also note that at the University of Wittenberg in the 1500’s, Lutheran medical physicians were taught the usages of astrology in medicine. [53]

In the 1600’s, there were still many Protestant medical doctors throughout Europe who used astrology as a part of their supposed scientific medical practices. [54] An example of this was Dr Robert Fludd who was a member of the Royal College of Physicians in London. [55]


The Christian leaders Melanchthon and Calvin also compromised


Even the early Protestant Lutheran leader, Phillip Melanchthon (1497-1560) taught that astrology was very useful for Christian medical doctors and in predicting major national events.[56] Melanchthon quoted the words of the ancient pagan philosopher Aristotle (in Meterologica 339a 19) and the ancient doctor Hippocrates (in “Airs, Waters and Places” 2) as supposed proof that it was good to use astrology in professional medical practice. [57] To support his unbiblical belief in astrology, Melanchthon also quoted the words of the famous ancient pagan medical physicians Hippocrates, Diocles and Galen, [58] whose writings were venerated at the time by many.

Melanchthon also used a testimony to try to prove his claims about astrology. [59] He records that the university mathematics lecturer Johannes Volmar told how the King of Hungary became suddenly sick but his doctors could not discover the cause. The king’s mathematician worked out a horoscope for the king which showed the eclipse in the moon was badly influencing the king’s heart. The mathematician then suggested a medication to make the king’s heart stronger. From the time the king’s doctors did as the mathematician said, the king began to recover. This example supposedly proved that astrology had a very important role in medical practice.

In his “Traite ou Advertissement Contre l’astrologie qu’on appelle iudiciaire” in 1549, the Protestant leader John Calvin attacked astrological predictions about the exact duration of our lives, the times of our deaths, the rise and fall of kingdoms and so on. [60] But Calvin did compromise about medical astrology, saying that the planets influence our complexions and human body, even though they are not the primary cause of changes in these. [61]

It was primarily through the attacks of the Puritans in the 1600’s on all forms of unbiblical superstitions and because of Isaac Newton’s science theories that medical astrology died. [62] But note medical astrology is another example of how many Catholics and Protestants compromised throughout history with some of the unbiblical wicked theories and practices of medical doctors.

Can you imagine going to a so-called “Christian” doctor and the doctor giving you a horoscope about your illness? This is the type of thing which results when Christians compromise in any way with sorcery, occult, witchcraft or astrology.

            Note also that the astrologer, fortune-teller and false prophet Michael Nostradamus (1503-1566 A.D.) was a doctor who trained in medicine at the famous Montpellier University in France.


Witchcraft and sorcery


Proverbs 21:2 warns us: “Every way of a man is right in his own eyes, but the Lord weighs the hearts.” I know numerous Christians and ministers who approve of themselves or their older and sometimes even younger children watching television shows and movies or reading books which express approval of witchcraft, sorcery or occult. Examples of such shows, movies or books are “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Buffy”, “Merlin”, “Harry Potter”, “The Lord of the Rings”, “The Hobbit” and “Bewitched”. The Scriptures oppose all forms of witchcraft, sorcery, occult and psychic powers. [63]

In Deuteronomy 18:10-12, God states He regards everyone who practices sorcery, witchcraft and occult as abominations to Him: “There shall not be found among you anyone…who practices witchcraft, or a soothsayer, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer, or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead. For all who do these things are an abomination to the Lord, and because of these abominations the Lord your God drives them out from before you.” God loves everyone including sorcerers and witches (see John 3:16 and Romans 5:5). But He also regards them as abominations.

There is nothing wrong in reading books or watching television shows which reveal that sorcery and witchcraft are evil. For example, the Bible records some demon-empowered miracles associated with sorcery, witchcraft, spiritualist mediums and fortune telling. [64] But the Bible adds comments which condemn such practices.

If, however, you watch movies or shows or read books which express approval of such practices, you are treating as acceptable something which God says is an abomination. In Proverbs 17:15, God says that anyone, who tries to justify those people He regards as wicked, are abominations to Him: “He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the just, both of them are an abomination to the Lord.”

As stated above, Deuteronomy 18:10-12 shows God regards all sorcerers and witches as wicked abominations. Therefore, taking Deuteronomy 18:10-12 and Proverbs 17:15 together means that if we try to justify to children that it is right for them to read books or view films which are about sorcery and witchcraft and which either express approval or at least never once condemn these Satanic practices, we risk becoming abominations to Him. This is a very serious warning which many Christians take very lightly.

Shows, movies or books which take a supposedly neutral stand on witchcraft and sorcery – not showing approval or disapproval – are possibly even more dangerous than those which actively approve of such things.

Filled with the Holy Spirit, Paul told the sorcerer Elymas “…O full of all deceit and all fraud, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease perverting the straight ways of the Lord?” (see Acts 13:10). In 2 Timothy 3:8, Paul refers to the sorcerers Jannes and Jambres who opposed God’s truth and Moses, God’s great prophet. Revelation 21:8 reveals that anyone who practices the evil of sorcery and refuses to turn from it will not go to heaven.

In Romans 12:9, God commands all believers: “…Abhor what is evil…” If we like or enjoy any movie, show or book which expresses approval of any type of evil, we are sinning. This is because we are not expressing a hatred of evil. God commands us to love all evildoers but hate all evil.

In Isaiah 5:20, God declares His judgement on anything which pretends that something evil is good or something which involves Satanic darkness is light: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; who put darkness for light, and light for darkness; who put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter.” The powers of darkness behind sorcery and occult like being identified with “light” and “good”.

If you permit your children to watch movies or shows or read books which express approval of sorcery or occult, you are sinning by tempting your children to sin. Children are very impressionable and often imitate in games or fantasize what they see or read. In Matthew 18:6, Jesus warned: “But whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to sin, it would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were drowned in the depth of the sea.” In Romans 14:13, God commands us to never put a cause to sin in front of others.

In 2001, an Evangelical Anglican minister with a large church told me: “I let my older children enjoy watching shows like “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Buffy” and “Merlin”, but also warn them beforehand and afterwards that sorcery and witchcraft are wrong and should never be practiced.” But this advice is just as ridiculous as exhorting Christian parents in Roman times to take their children to see gladiator fights and beforehand and afterwards to warn their children such legalised murdering was wrong and should not be practiced. It is like allowing your children to watch one of the new television shows which present homosexual sex as being right and then telling your children at the end of the show that homosexuality is wrong.

In Psalm 97:10, God commands that if we love Him, we must hate evil also: “You who love the Lord, hate evil!…”


The “It’s only good entertainment” excuse


I have heard some people argue that books and films like “Harry Potter”, “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Lord of the Rings”, “The Hobbit” and “Buffy” are right to watch because they are supposedly good entertainment.

But note Psalm 5:4 says: “For you are not a God who takes pleasure in wickedness…” God does not enjoy observing and is not entertained by television shows or movies which express approval of anyone practicing sorcery or witchcraft. This is especially since such practices in reality involve obtaining the power of God’s enemies – Satan and demons.

Also note in 1 Corinthians 13:6, Paul emphasises that love “does not rejoice in iniquity…” Sorcery, witchcraft and wizardry are forms of iniquity or wickedness. If we are truly walking in love towards God and other people, we will not enjoy or be entertained by watching films or reading books which express approval of witchcraft and sorcery.

In Greek, the phrase “rejoice in” in 1 Corinthians 13:6 is a form of the word “chairo” which means “to rejoice, to be glad” [65] or “to enjoy a state of happiness…” [66] Therefore, if we are enjoying or are happy reading a book or watching a movie or show which expresses approval of iniquity which God hates, we are sinning.


Buffy also promoted lesbian practices


On March 28, 2004, the “Sunday Life” magazine article (pages 28-30) in the Sun Herald newspaper in Sydney Australia had an article entitled “The Gay Life” or in its magazine cover entitled “Queer T.V.: why prime time has gone so gay”. This article refers to the many new shows which present homosexuality in a positive light. This article (page 30) also records the following about the witches show “Buffy” in 2000: BUFFY THE VAMPIRE SLAYER

At the end of the fourth season, the intense friendship between witches Willow (Alyson Hannigan…) and Tara (Amber Benson) culminated in a declaration of love that extended beyond the platonic.”


More than just fantasy


Someone may argue, “But shows like “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Harry Potter” and “Merlin” are only fantasy or imaginative fiction. Because they are not real, watching them does not tempt young children into practicing sorcery and witchcraft. This is even though these shows and movies express strong approval of these things.”

But this is similar to arguing, “It is right to show my children pornographic movies with explicit nude sexual intercourse scenes in them because these scenes are only fantasy or fiction.” In Matthew 5:28, Jesus condemned having sexual intercourse in a fantasized or imagined sense. So showing sexually mature children such pornographic scenes tempts them to commit fornication in their imagination.

The idea that something is not a sin if it is only fiction or fantasy is also shown to be wrong in relation to dirty jokes. Such unclean jokes are often about imaginary sinful sexual encounters. But note in Ephesians 5:4, the Apostle Paul condemns “coarse jesting” which includes dirty fictional jokes.

Internet child pornography is entertainment and involves the fantasy realm of some men. But this does not mean such pornography is harmless and immune from being judged by the Word of God. “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Harry Potter” and similar shows are also entertainment and contain elements of fantasy. But this does not mean they are harmless and should not be judged by Biblical standards of right and wrong.

Many witches and occultists do not believe that what is presented on “Sabrina”, “Charmed” and similar shows is just fantasy. For example, in the “Television” section of the Sydney newspaper “The Sun-Herald” (October 10, 1999, page 5), a journalist wrote: “Witchcraft spells success story for Ground Zero host Fiona Horne. Behind the scenes of her busy public life, Fiona Horne has found meaning in the occult. A practising witch for 14 years, she admits she’s a fan of the coven of TV witches who have appeared in our lounge rooms of late. Drawn to witchcraft in her late teens, Horne explains its popularity with young viewers. ‘It is a goddess-oriented and there are strong role models for women’, she said. Horne is grateful producers have moved away from the stereotypes of witches of old, who came with broomsticks and twitching noses…Modern magic has, of course, been given the Hollywood make-over, said Horne, but references such as the book of shadows in Charmed are authentic. ‘All witches have a book of shadows and traditionally you are meant to handwrite down your spells, dreams, visions and thoughts,’ she said.”

Recently there was a movie called “Bedazzled” in which a man sold his heart to Satan in order to get a specific girl and some other wishes. I know some Christians who said that they enjoyed watching this movie. They claimed that because it was fantasy, entertainment and comedy, it was not sinful them watching it. Satan must laugh at such naive churchgoers.


Fantasy or fiction is a powerful educator


Proof of how fantasy or fictional writings or plays are not morally neutral in their effects on readers or audiences can be seen in ancient times. In ancient Greece, the partly fictional and partly historical writings of poets like Homer, Hesiod (8th Century B.C.) the paedophile Theognis (lived 500’s B.C.) and Pindar (552-442 B.C.) and fable-writers like Aesop (6th century B.C.) were full of fantacised accounts of the pagan Greek gods and their evil activities. Many of the Greeks and later Romans read the writings of these famous poets and dramatists or in theatres watched plays based on these fictional writings.

These pagan gods committed adultery, rape, paedophilia, incest, murdered their children, approved of witchcraft and sorcery, appeared naked in public and encouraged the worship of idols and did many other types of evil. Even though these writings were only fiction or fables, they trained millions to believe in these foolish pagan gods and goddesses and to follow many of the wicked practices of these imaginary divine beings.

In Roman times, the Roman senator and statesman Seneca (4B.C.-65 A.D.) said that the myths of the Greek poets about Jupiter and the other Greek gods encouraged people to believe that sexual immorality was justified. In his writing “On the Shortness of Life” (16) in his “Dialogues”, Seneca wrote: “Hence the lunacy of the poets, who encourage human frailty by their stories in which Jupiter, seduced by the pleasures of love-making, is seen to double the length of the night. What else is it but to inflame our vices when they quote the gods to endorse them, and as precedent for our failings they offer – and excuse – the wantonness of the gods?”

Eusebius of Caesarea (264-340 A.D.) records how the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and other ancient nationalities which he was familiar with followed the sexual practices of their gods and goddesses. These sexual practices included adultery, paedophilia and homosexuality. Eusebius wrote: “Again, the Egyptians with one consent, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, nay, every nation beneath the sun, have united in worshipping the very parts and elements of the world, and even the produce of the ground itself. And, which is most surprising, though acknowledging the adulterous, unnatural, and licentious crimes of their deities, they have not only filled every city, and village, and district with temples, shrines, and statues in their honor, but have followed their evil example to the ruin of their own souls.” [67]

Eusebius also stated that these ancient people learned to imitate the wicked activities of their pagan gods and goddesses through hearing or reading their popular religious myths or fables: “Nay, more than this: from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their own deities, they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life, and wrought the ruin of body and soul by licentiousness of every kind. Not content with this, they even overstepped the bounds which nature had defined, and together committed incredible and nameless crimes, ‘men with men (in the words of the sacred writer) working unseemliness, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was due.’” [68]


Little children act out what they read and hear


It is well-known that little children often act out or pretend to be the characters they read about in books or they view in movies and T.V. shows. This is another reason why it is so dangerous to permit little children to read books like “Harry Potter” and “Lord of the Rings” and to view shows like “Buffy”, “Charmed” and “Sabrina”. Little children who read or view these books and shows often pretend to be witches and sorcerers, to put spells and curses on others, to levitate and to be able to perform occult miracles.


Gullible rationalistic churchgoers and post-modern New Agers


Tragically, many educated but gullible churchgoers have been brainwashed by the media and the education system with the legacy of the anti-supernaturalistic assumptions of rationalism – one of the most popular worldly philosophies of the 1700’s, 1800’s and early and mid-1900’s in Western countries. This philosophy regarded witchcraft and sorcery as not being associated with real miracles, Satan and demons but instead as being related to just fairy stories and entertaining fantasy. Rationalism taught that anything which cannot be rationally explained was not real.

But now most young non-churchgoers in Western countries have abandoned the assumptions of rationalism and have adopted elements of the mystical post-modern New-Age philosophy which teaches occult and witchcraft produce real miracles.


Another absurd argument and cunning deception


One ridiculous argument is, “A movie or show which has much casting of spells, reading of crystal balls and sorcery-occult miracles is good to watch as long as it does not mention anything about Satan and demons.” But this is part of the problem. A movie which focuses on occultic and witchcraft practices without saying these things are always connected with Satan and demons is deceiving its viewers and is therefore helping Satan’s cause.

Shows and movies like “Sabrina”, “Merlin” and “Charmed” are based on cunning deception in the sense they never reveal that Satan and demons are the ones who give sorcerers, witches and occultists their supernatural powers. One of Satan’s brilliant tactics throughout history has been to hide from most people, except from Satanists, some sorcerers and some witches, that he and his demons are the source of such miraculous powers. By hiding his involvement, Satan had deceived millions of initially wary people to dabble in such practices. In 2 Corinthians 11:14, Paul warned Christians: “For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light.”

In 2002, I asked about 20 churchgoing primary school children whose parents permit them to read Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings and similar books, “Who gives black and white witches their power to perform miracles?” But not one answered Satan and/or demons. These children are good examples of what happens when parents compromise about books like these.


They defang and de-Satanize witchcraft and sorcery


Books, films and T.V. shows like “Buffy”, “Sabrina”, “Harry Potter”, “Lord of the Rings”, “Merlin”, “The Hobbit” and “Charmed” are wicked deceptions because they defang and de-Satanize witchcraft, sorcery and occult. These books, movies and shows pretend that witchcraft and sorcery can be forms of harmless entertainment divorced from Satan and his demons.

Anyone, who has seen demons being cast out of people who have dabbled with the occult or who have been practicing witches or sorcerers, know that witchcraft and sorcery are never divorced from Satan and demons and are never harmless amusements.


The allegorising archbishop living in fantasy land


Recently an archbishop wrote in a newspaper: “Harry Potter is an 11 year old wizard whose parents were killed in the struggle against evil. When he goes to Hogwarts, the boarding school for witchcraft the struggle is resumed…the book (and the film…) are full of good moral teaching…I happen to believe that it’s important for all of us to learn that good and evil are real spiritual forces, that each of us has to commit himself against evil…in the final violent struggle, Harry triumphs and good prevails. All of us, and especially the young, need to be reminded that good is more powerful and will have the last word.”

To try to make Harry Potter more acceptable to Christians, the good reverend tried to allegorise Harry Potter. Allegorising refers to taking a story which has an obvious literal meaning to have so-called deeper symbolic meanings. Some Christians who hate “Harry Potter” but love “Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbits”, refuse to allegorise or find symbolic good meanings in “Harry Potter” but they find all these amazing hidden mystical symbolic meanings in “Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbits”. For example, they claim the black sorcerers in “Lord of the Rings” represent Satan and the kingdom of darkness and the “white” sorcerers like Gandalf represent God.

But I am sure God does not like being allegorised as a “white” sorcerer or “white” witch, particularly since “white” sorcery and “white” witchcraft are really black witchcraft in disguise.

Instead of encouraging their children to read or view things which God says are abominations to Him, these churchgoers would be better to be teaching their children how wicked are all forms of sorcery, witchcraft and occult. In Ephesians 5:11, Paul commanded: “And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them.”

Reading books or viewing films about sorcery and witchcraft which either show approval or at least never once condemn these practices is one example of having fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness.

The archbishop’s comments suggest that a miracle-performing wizard can be on the side of good and God. But the Bible teaches that all wizards are on the side of evil and are empowered by Satan and demons. Similarly a so-called “white” witch is not on the side of God and good, but is on Satan’s side just as much as a so-called “black” witch.


The Gnostics used allegories to justify their false teachings


In the times of the early Church, many heretical Gnostics symbolically used or allegorised various Old and New Testament passages to try to prove their teachings were Scriptural. For example, they said the fact the Sun was created on the fourth day (see Genesis 1:16-19), the robe of the High Priest had four rows of special stones (see Exodus 28:17 and 39:10) and there are other references to the number four in the Old Testament are types or symbols of their mystical Tetrad. [69]

The same Gnostics argued that the fact eight persons were saved from the Great Flood (see Genesis 6:10 and 18), David held the eighth place in age among his brothers (see 1 Samuel 16:10) and circumcision was commanded to occur on the eighth day after birth proved the reality of their mystical Ogdoad. [70] They also said the mentions of the number ten in Genesis 15:19, 16:2, 24:22, 24:25, 42:3, Exodus 26:1, 36:8, 36:21 and John 20:24 prove the existence of their mystical Decad.

These Gnostics also argued the mention of the number twelve in Genesis 35:22, 49:28, Exodus 24:4, Joshua 3:12, 4:3, 1 Kings 18:31 and Luke 2:42 were figurative types of their mystical Duodecad. [71] They did the same with any mention of the number thirty in the Scriptures. They claimed these references to thirty symbolised their mythical Triacontad. [72]

Gnostics also argued that the 30 aeons were divided into three sets. One set of eight aeons was called the Ogdoad. A set of twelve aeons was called the Duodecad and the remaining ten was named the Decad. [73] This division into three sets supposedly were symbols or allegories of the Trinity.

By using so many Scriptural words and phrases and verses of Scripture in false symbolic ways, the Gnostics deceived many churchgoers. Those who try to find hidden symbolic or allegorical references to God and Jesus Christ in Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings are heading down similar dangerous paths.




The book “The Gospel According to Harry Potter”


In 2002, a so-called “Christian” book named “The Gospel According to Harry Potter – Spirituality in the Stories of the World’s Most Famous Seeker” was published. Many Christian bookshops have been selling this book to Christians of all ages.

This book makes the following ridiculous claims about supposed Biblical symbolism and Biblical allegories in the Harry Potter books:


a)        The lightning bolt scar on the sorcerer Harry Potter’s head is a symbol of the fact that Jesus Christ has broken the curse of death (pages 8 to 9).

On page 9, the book says: “Like Harry and friends, we can learn to practice Defence against the Dark Arts, trusting that there is a greater power at work that we may not yet fully understand.” (This claim is almost blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. This is because it compares the Holy Spirit to the wicked demons who work through so-called “white” witchcraft and “white” sorcery against black magic. A relevant passage to this is Matthew 12:22-32.)

b)        Dumblemore, the head sorcerer is like the Holy Spirit (page 155). (This again is close to blasphemy.)

c)        The invitation of Dumblemore, the head sorcerer to all black sorcerers to return to so-called “white” witchcraft and sorcery is like Jesus’ invitation in the Parable of the Wedding Feast to sinners to return to God (pages 157-160). (This ridiculously implies that a person can turn to God and still practice so-called “white” witchcraft and “white” sorcery. In Galatians 5:20-21, Paul strongly warns that anyone who continually practices sorcery – black or white – “will not inherit the kingdom of God.” Acts 13:6-12 records Paul opposed a sorcerer in public, saying to him: “…O full of all deceit and all fraud, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease perverting the straight ways of the Lord? And now, indeed, the hand of the Lord is upon you, and you shall be blind, not seeing the sun for a time. And immediately a dark mist fell on him, and he went around seeking someone to lead him by the hand. Then the procounsul believed, when he saw what had been done, being astonished at the teaching of the Lord.”)

d)        When the wizard Dumblemore declared a person justified after the latter turned from black to so-called “white” witchcraft or sorcery, this was like God justifying a sinner (pages 134-139).

e)        The scars on Harry Potter are like Jesus’ scars through His death (pages 10-11).

f)         Being chosen by God through His undeserved grace is like Harry Potter being chosen as a warlock (pages 22-24).

g)        God’s laws are similar to the laws of the Ministry of Magic (pages 56-59). (But note God’s laws totally oppose all forms of sorcery and witchcraft – see Leviticus 19:26, 19:31, 20:6, Deuteronomy 18:9-14, Galatians 5:20-21, Revelation 9:21, 21:8 and 22:14-15.)

h)        Muggles – people who do not like witchcraft and supernatural magic – are similar to the Pharisees who rejected Jesus and His miracles (pages 60-62).

i)          The occultist headmasters’ parting promise to help students of witchcraft and sorcery is an allegory of Jesus’ promise to answer prayers and be with His disciples forever (pages 70-71).

j)          Harry the warlock and sorcerer is the light in the darkness for the house-elves just as Jesus Christ is the light in the darkness (page 86). (This is an example of a different unbiblical Jesus whom Paul warned us of in 2 Corinthians 11:3-4: “But I fear, lest somehow, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. For if he who comes preaches another Jesus whom we have not preached, or if you receive a different spirit which you have not received, or a different gospel which you have not accepted, you may well put up with it.”)

k)        The love which sorcerers have for Muggles – people who do not believe in witchcraft and sorcery – is similar to God’s love for all people (pages 120-121).

l)          God’s wrath is like the wrath of a “white” sorcerer (pages 140-142).


Comments on Points (e) to (l)


I do not think God or Jesus Christ would like Himself being compared to sorcerers – people whom He regards as abominations as Deuteronomy 18:10-12 shows: “There shall not be found among you anyone who makes his son or his daughter, pass through the fire, or one who practices witchcraft, or a soothsayer, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer, or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead. For all who do these things are an abomination to the Lord, and because of these abominations the Lord your God drives them out from before you.”

This is why the comparisons and allegories in (e) to (l) are wrong. Sorcerers and witches receive their supernatural power from the fallen Satanic spirits or demons. God is totally opposed to all these demonic spirits.

Trying to find allegories and symbols of God, Jesus Christ and His Gospel in Harry potter is like trying to find:


a)        allegories in hell of how wonderful heaven is

b)        symbols and allegories of Jesus Christ in a Satanist or occult manual.


The book “The Gospel According to Harry Potter” also made the following unbiblical claims:


(i)        God gives occultists, witches and sorcerers the ability to interpret dreams (page 119).

(ii)      Only those practicing black magic are said to be false prophets (pages 41-42). No mention is made that all so-called “white” witches and “white” sorcerers are also false prophets. The book tells Christians to test the spirits (pages 46-47), but the author has little understanding of how deeply evil spirits are involved in all types of witchcraft and sorcery, not just the so-called black or dark sort.


This book “The Gospel According to Harry Potter” teaches a false paganised syncretistic “gospel” which needs its own spirits tested.

Tragically, well-known Christian author Tony Compolo wrote a recommendation on the back cover of “The Gospel According to Harry Potter”. He stated “a wonderful rebuttal for those who see something sinister in this children’s classic. (The author) helped me enjoy Harry Potter all the more.”

God hates sorcery, witchcraft and occult in every form. We must love all people but hate everything God defines as evil. In Romans 12:9, He commands us: “…Abhor what is evil…” Abhorring evil includes never participating in anything which shows obvious approval of evil.


A very poor argument


The author of “The Gospel According to Harry Potter” (page xii in Introduction) argues that Christians should read Harry Potter books just because the author of Harry Potter says she believes in God and goes to the Church of Scotland: “Dubious distinctions are being made between the works of C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkein, as opposed to those of J.K. Rowling. The most basic is the suggestion that since Tolkein and Lewis were openly Christian and admitted that their faith worked its way into their fantasy – indeed, that it was an integral part – their fantasy is okay. However, since J.K. Rowling has been reserved in announcing her religious beliefs (although she openly declares her belief in God and attends the Church of Scotland), critics treat her fantasy as different and inherently dangerous.”

But just because a person attends church does not mean the person is obeying God about the sort of books they are writing or about other matters. So just because the author of the Harry Potter books attends church does not mean her books are approved of by God and are in agreement with the teachings and commands of the Bible.


Comments in the book “Finding God in the Lord of the Rings”


In their epilogue (page 110), the authors of “Finding God in the Lord of the Rings” argued about J.R.R. Tolkein: “Fantasy, as he understood it, is, in its highest and purest form, a place where art, theology, and primal human desire meet and intersect…For the Christian this can mean only one thing: Fantasy is a place where we come face to face with Christ.”

Comments such as above appeal to overly-mystical churchgoers who try to mix pagan eastern mystical religions, the occult, various ancient pagan Greek philosophies, post-modern New Age concepts and/or unbiblical religious fables or myths with the Bible. But Christians who wish to walk in obedience to God’s written Word and to the Holy Spirit, Who never leads believers contrary to His written Word, will avoid fantasy or fiction which approves of ideas or practices which are against the teachings of the Bible.

As stated previously, the Gnostic groups deceived many churchgoers in the time of the Early Church by encouraging churchgoers to read the pagan Greek fantasy fables and to try to come face to face with Christ through mixtures of these fables and Biblical teaching.


The Valentinian Gnostics’ religious fairy stories


In his Chapter 8 “How the Valentinians pervert the Scriptures to support their own ‘pious’ opinions”, of Book 1 of his “Against Heresies”, the early church leader Irenaeus describes how the Valentinian Gnostics perverted or twisted the meanings of the Scriptures to fit in with their invented fables or religious fairy stories in order to convince people to follow their false teachings: “Such, then, is their system, which neither the prophets announced, nor the Lord taught, nor the apostles delivered, but of which they boast that beyond all others they have a perfect knowledge. They gather their views from other sources than the Scriptures; and, to use a common proverb, they strive to weave ropes of sand, while they endeavor to adapt with an air of probability to their own peculiar assertions the parables of the Lord, the sayings of the prophets, and the words of the apostles, in order that their scheme may not seem altogether without support. In doing so, however, they disregard the order and the connection of the Scriptures, and so far as in them lies, dismember and destroy the truth. By transferring passages, and dressing them up anew, and making one thing out of another, they succeed in deluding many through their wicked art in adapting the oracles of the Lord to their opinions.

Their manner of acting is just as if one, when a beautiful image of a king has been constructed by some skilful artist out of precious jewels, should then take this likeness of the man all to pieces, should rearrange the gems, and so fit them together as to make them into the form of a dog or of a fox, and even that but poorly executed; and should then maintain and declare that this was the beautiful image of the king which the skilful artist constructed, pointing to the jewels which had been admirably fitted together by the first artist to form the image of the king, but have been with bad effect transferred by the latter one to the shape of a dog, and by thus exhibiting the jewels, should deceive  the ignorant who had no conception what a king’s form was like, and persuade them that that miserable likeness of the  fox was, in fact, the beautiful image of the king. In like manner do these persons patch together old wives’ fables, and then endeavor, by violently drawing away from their proper connection, words, expressions, and parables whenever found, to adapt the oracles of God to their baseless fictions.” [74]

The Valentinian Gnostics did not test their religious fairy stories by the Scriptures but instead reinterpreted the Bible to agree with their fictional stories which approved of numerous wicked unbiblical ideas and practices.


Gnostics in the 300’s A.D. mixing pagan fables with the Gospel


In his Chapter “Gnostics” in his “Panarion”, the early church leader Epiphanius of Salamis (approx. 310-402 A.D.) recorded that the Gnostics at his time mixed the teachings of the Scriptures with pagan Greek and Roman myths or religious fairy stories: “The Gnostics…basing themselves on pagan superstition, they refashion the fable-filled poetry and illusions of the Greeks, thereby weaving together truth and falsehood…They base themselves on idiotic visions and prooftexts in the Gospel which they preach…All the sects have gathered their erroreous doctrine from the pagan myths…” [75]


Tolkien insisted his books are not allegories or symbolic representations


One of the main arguments which many churchgoers use to try to justify them and/or their children reading or viewing J.R.R. Tolkien’s “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit” is their claim that these books or films are symbolic representations or allegories of God’s battle with Satan and/or Jesus’ death and resurrection and/or of the great moral absolutes of the Bible. But note Tolkien himself many times insisted that “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit” are not allegories or symbolic representations of God, Jesus Christ, the Gospel or any moral standards.

In an undated letter probably written in January or February 1956, J.R.R. Tolkien assured Michael Straight, the editor of the “New Republic” that Tolkien never intended there to be any type of symbolic representation or allegory – moral, political, religious, contemporary or any other type – in “The Lord of the Rings”: “I hope that you have enjoyed The Lord of the Rings? Enjoyed is the key-word. For it was written to amuse (in the highest sense): to be readable. There is no ‘allegory’, moral, political or contemporary in the work at all.

It is a ‘fairy-story’, but one written – according to the belief I once expressed in an extended essay ‘On Fairy-stories’ that they are the proper audience – for adults. Because I think that fairy story has its own mode of reflecting ‘truth’, different from allegory, or (sustained) satire, or realism, and in some ways more powerful. But first of all it must succeed just as a tale, excite, please, and even on occasion move, and within its own imagined world be accorded (literary) belief. To succeed in that was my primary object.” [76]

In the above, Tolkien said that “The Lord of the Rings” is a fairy story written for adults and as such his primary aims for it were “to amuse”, “to excite, please and even on occasion move” and “within its own imagined world be accorded (literary) belief”.

A fairy story is a fictional tale about humans, sorcerers, witches and strange creatures who often have magical or occult powers. A fairy story contains normal features of some human society mixed with various unusual creatures or events and almost always having a happy ending. The primary purpose of fairy stories is to amuse, entertain and excite. Like every other type of genre, fairy stories also carry values and a planned or unintended message, but this is not the same as being a symbolic representation or allegory of moral, religious, political or any universal truth.

In his letter to Herbert Schiro dated 17th November, 1957, Tolkien wrote: There is no ‘symbolism’ or conscious allegory in my story. Allegory of the sort ‘five wizards = five senses’ is wholly foreign to my way of thinking. There were five wizards and that is just a unique part of history. To ask if the Orcs ‘are’ Communists is to me as sensible as asking if Communists are Orcs.

That there is no allegory does not, of course, say there is no applicability. There always is. And since I have not made the struggle wholly unequivocal: sloth and stupidity among hobbits, pride and (illegible) among Elves, grudge and greed in Dwarf-hearts, and folly and wickedness among the ‘Kings of Men’ and treachery and power-lust even among the ‘Wizards’, there is I suppose applicability in my story to present times. But I should say, if asked, the tale is not really about Power and Dominion: that only sets the wheels going; it is about Death and the desire for deathlessness.” [77]

Tolkien here emphasises once again that he never intended his readers to take “The Lord of the Rings” as being a symbolic representation or allegory or anything moral, political, religious or anything else. He said that the book is about death and the desire for deathlessness.

Also, in his letter to Stanley Unwin dated 13th October, 1938, Tolkien said the following about his book “The Hobbit”: “Though it is not an allegory [78] So neither did Tolkien intend “The Hobbit” to be a symbolic representation of God, Jesus Christ’s life, death or resurrection, the Gospel or any Biblical moral absolute.

In the same letter to Michael Straight, Tolkien also said: “Thus Gandalf faced and suffered death; and came back or was sent back, as he says, with enhanced power. But though one may be in this reminded of the Gospels, it is not really the same thing at all. The Incarnation of God is an infinitely greater thing than anything I would dare to write. Here I am only concerned with Death as part of the nature, physical and spiritual, of Man, and with Hope without guarantees.” [79]

In the above, Tolkien says that Gandalf the sorcerer suffered death and was miraculously resurrected, but Tolkien in no way intended this to be representative of the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ or of Christ’s death and resurrection recorded in the Gospels in the Bible.

Note though that Tolkien’s suggestion that a sorcerer could be resurrected from the dead wrongly implies that God approves of so-called “white” sorcery on wizardry to the degree He directly or indirectly rose a so-called “white” sorcerer from the dead.

In his letter to Sir Stanley Unwin dated 31 July 1947, Tolkien comments on Book 1 of “The Lord of the Rings” and Rayner Unwin’s pre-reading of it before publication: “But in site of this, do not let Raymer suspect ‘Allegory’. There is a ‘moral’, I suppose, in any tale worth telling. But that is not the same thing. Even the struggle between darkness and light (as he calls it, not me) is for me just a particular phase of history, one example of its pattern, perhaps, but not The Pattern; and the actors are individuals – they each, of course, contain universals, or they would not live at all, but they never represent them as such.

Of course, Allegory and Story converge, meeting somewhere in Truth. So that the only perfectly consistent allegory is real life, and the only fully intelligible story is an allegory.” [80]

Tolkien’s comments here about “The Lord of the Rings” is consistent with his earlier comments. He repeats that “The Lord of the Rings” is not an allegory or representation of universal truths. Instead as he stated earlier, “The Lord of the Rings” is a fairy story intended to “amuse”, “excite, please and even move” adults.

Also as Tolkien says above, he supposes there is a moral to any story worth telling. But as he stated in his other letters I have quoted here in 1956 and 1957, he never intended “The Lord of the Rings” to be an allegory or symbolic representation of anything about Jesus Christ or His death and resurrection or the God of the Bible.


C.S. Lewis also said it was not an allegory of God


In his Chapter “Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings” in his book “Of this and Other Worlds”, C.S. Lewis wrote that Tolkien’s trilogy “The Lord of the Rings” was not a theological allegory or symbolic representation of God or Jesus Christ: “What shows that we are reading myth, not allegory, is that there are no pointers to a specifically theological, or political, or psychological application. [81]


Tolkien’s pagan unbiblical concepts


In his same undated letter to Michael Straight in about January or February 1956, Tolkien insisted that in “The Lord of the Rings”, God has ultimate authority but He is remote and outside of the created world and only the Valars or Rulers have access to Him: “It is, I should say, a ‘monotheistic but “sub-creational” mythology’. There is no embodiment of the One, of God, who indeed remains remote, outside the World, and only directly accessible to the Valar or Rulers. These take the place of the ‘gods’, but are created spirits, or those of the primary creation who by their own will have entered into the world. But the One retains all ultimate authority, and (or so it seems as viewed in serial time) reserves the right to intrude the finger of God into the story.” [82]

This concept of God is:

a)         an example of syncretism. Syncretism is the union or mixing of pagan and Christian Biblical ideas. God is not remote and outside the created world. This idea of remote “God” is contrary to the Biblical teaching that God the Holy Spirit is everywhere in the created spiritual and natural world (see Psalm 139:7-8).

b)         A form of paganism because it says that God is “only directly accessible to the Valar or Rulers”. In other words, this concept of God says that everyone can only have indirect access to God through certain created spirits who are special intermediatories between them and God.


This view of everyone only being able to have indirect access to God through special intermediatories is very similar to the Colossian heresy which Paul condemned in Colossians 2:6-10 and 18-19. in these verses, Paul emphasised that we are complete in Jesus Christ, are rooted and built up in Him, should walk in Him and should avoid the error of many Colossians of wrongly believing we cannot have direct access to God but must instead have angels as intermediatories so we can have indirect access to Him.

Tolkien’s above words probably reflect his own unbiblical view which teaches ordinary Christians cannot have direct access to God through Jesus Christ but can only have indirect access to a supposed faraway God through special so-called “Saints”.

In Ephesians 2:13-18, Paul taught through Jesus, His death and the Holy Spirit, we can all have direct access to God the Father: “To me, who am less than the least of all the saints, this grace was given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to make all people see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the ages has been hidden in God who created all things through Jesus Christ; to the intent that now the manifold wisdom of God might be made known by the church to the principalities and powers in the heavenly places, according to the eternal purpose which He accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord, in whom we have boldness and access with confidence through faith in Him.”

Ephesians 3:8-12 teaches similarly.

In the same letter, Tolkien told Michael Straight the following about “The Lord of the Rings”: There is no ‘embodiment’ of the Creator anywhere in this story or mythology. Gandalf is a ‘created’ person; though possibly a spirit that existed before in the physical world. His function as a ‘wizard’ is an angelos or messenger from the Valar or Rulers: to assist the rational creatures of Middle-earth to resist Sauron, a power too great for them unaided.” [83]

Tolkien re-emphasises that God is not embodied or expressed by any person or event in “The Lord of the Rings”. But note Tolkien also says that Gandalf was a person but was possibly previously a spirit that existed before the physical world was created. Tolkien here expresses the pagan teaching of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato (427-347 B.C.) who stated that spirits pre-existed in the spiritual world prior to the creation of the natural world and later took on natural bodies.

Also Tolkien here says that the wizard Gandalf is a messenger or angelos of the Valar or Rulers, the supposed created intermediatories between God and everyone else. But in the Scriptures, wizards or sorcerers are never on God’s side.

In a draft of a continuation of his letter to Rhona Beare in October 1958, Tolkien expresses another pagan belief when he says his “Valar” or Rulers are “minds without incarnation”: “The Valar or ‘powers, rulers’ were the first ‘creation’: rational spirits or minds without incarnation, created before the physical world.” [84]

In the draft of his letter to Mrs Eileen Elgar in September 1963, Tolkien wrote: “Of the others only Gandalf might be expected to master him – being an emissary of the Powers and a creature of the same order, an immortal spirit taking a visible physical form.” [85]

The religious and philosophical approach of Tolkien easily leads to an unbiblical syncretistic approach to pagan myths or fables. Syncretism is the uniting together of the teachings of Christianity found in the Bible with various pagan ideas and/or practices. He told C.S. Lewis: “We have come from God…and reflect a splintered fragment of the true light, the eternal-truth that is with God. Indeed, only by myth-making…can man aspire to the perfection he knew before the fall.” [86]


Tolkien’s belief in a modified form of reincarnation


In September 1954, Tolkien wrote a draft of a letter to Peter Hastings, the manager of the Newman Bookshop, a Catholic bookshop in Oxford. Hastings had previously written to Tolkien primarily to express concern about Tolkien’s suggestion to him in a previous conversation about the reincarnation of the elves. In this draft letter, Tolkien wrote: “‘Reincarnation’ may be bad theology (that surely, rather than metaphysics) as applied to Humanity; and my legendarium, especially the ‘Downfall of Numenor’ which lies immediately behind The Lord of the Rings, is based on my view: that Men are essentially mortal and must not try to become ‘immortal’ in the flesh. But I do not see how even in the Primary World any theologian or philosopher, unless very much better informed about the relation of spirit and body than I believe anyone to be, could deny the possibility of re-incarnation as a mode of existence, prescribed for certain kinds of rational incarnate creatures.” [87]

Here we see that Tolkien believed in a modified form of the Hindu, Pythagorean and ancient Druid belief of reincarnation.

Note also that in his draft letter to Robert Murray, a Jesuit dated 4th November 1954, Tolkien ended his letter with a discussion of the reincarnation of the wizard Gandalf. [88]


Tolkien’s necromancer or communicator with demons


In his letter to Stanley Unwin, Chairman of Allen and Unwin dated 15th October 1937 Tolkien refers to the Necromancer he used as a character in “The Hobbit”. [89] Necromancy is the practice of trying to communicate with the spirits of the dead. Necromancy actually involves communicating with demons. In Deuteronomy 18:11-12, God declares that anyone who is a spiritist or necromancer is an abomination to Him: “or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead. For all who do these things are an abomination to the Lord, and because of these abominations the Lord your God drives them out from before you.”

In his letter to C.A. Furth, Allen and Unwin dated 2 February 1939, Tolkien wrote: “I think The Lord of the Rings is in itself a good deal better than The Hobbit, but it may not prove a very fit sequel. It is more grown up – but the audience for which The Hobbit was written has done that also. The readers young and old who clamoured for ‘more about the Necromancer’ are to blame, for the Necromancer is not child’s play.” [90] Obviously many of the younger and older readers of the Hobbit totally disagreed with God’s absolute hatred of necromancy.


Tolkien’s wizard or sorcerer named Gandalf


In his draft letter to the Jesuit Robert Murray on 4 November, 1954, Tolkien stated the following about his character Gandalf the wizard or sorcerer: “Gandalf is not, of course, a human being (Man or Hobbit). There are naturally no precise modern terms to say what he was. I would venture to say he was an incarnate ‘angel’ – strictly an ‘angelos’ in Greek: that is with the other Istari, wizards, ‘those who know’, an emissary from the Lords of the West, sent to Middle-earth as the great crisis of Sauron loomed on the horizon. By ‘incarnate’ I meant they were embodied in physical bodies capable of pain and weariness…The wizards were not exempt, indeed being incarnate were more likely to stray, or err. Gandalf alone fully passes the test, on a moral plane anyway (he makes mistakes of judgment). For in his condition it was for him a sacrifice to perish on the Bridge in defense of his companions…Gandalf sacrificed himself, was accepted and enhanced and returned.” [91]

Tolkien also wrote: “Gandalf really ‘died’ and was changed…’I am Gandalf the White, who has returned from death’.” [92]

But it is very wrong to suggest that:


a)      a wizard is an incarnate “angel” of God. Tolkien uses the Greek word “angelos” which is the New Testament word for angels.

b)      a wizard who sacrifices himself and dies, can be resurrected.


All wizards or sorcerers will end up eternally in hell as Revelation 21:8 teaches: “But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.”

Revelation 22:15 confirms the same fact.


Tolkien claimed there was nothing contrary to Christianity in “The Lord of the Rings”


In his letter to W.H. Auden dated 12th May, 1965, Tolkien wrote: “With regard to The Lord of the Rings, I cannot claim to be a sufficient theologian to say whether my notion of orcs is heretical or not. I don’t feel under any obligation to make my story fit with formalized Christian theology, though I actually intended it to be consonant with Christian thought and belief, which is asserted somewhere, Book Five, page 190.” [93]

Here Tolkien claimed that there was nothing in his “The Lord of the Rings” which was contrary to Christian thought and belief. But this is a very naïve claim considering his “The Lord of the Rings” supports the pagan unbiblical beliefs that:


a)         there are “white” sorcerers or wizards sent by God.

b)         certain types of reincarnation are true.

c)         God is remote and outside of the created world and

d)         spirits can pre-exist before the creation of the world and then can be given a natural body.


Tolkien and Lewis were heavily influenced by Romanticism


Tolkien and his friend C.S. Lewis were heavily influenced by the non-Christian Romantic movement which was highly influential in Europe and Britain in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s. Romanticism was a movement in art, literature, philosophy and religion. Romanticism claimed that reality is found by emotion, imagination, fantasy, experience, spiritual illumination and listening to inner voices rather than by human reason. The Romantic movement rightly rejected the overemphasis on human reasoning of the rationalist philosophers but wrongly rejected the Bible as the only infallible source of truth and moral standards.

The “Evangelical Dictionary of Theology” states: “While acknowledging that there are exceptions, romanticism generally can be said to stress emotionalism, sensualism, fantasy, and imagination over rational order and control. Reality is found not by rational thought but through feeling, immediate experience, spiritual illumination, brooding, and listening to the inner voices. There is a subjectivism that emphasises self-consciousness, the activity of the ego, introversion, and originality. A sense of mystery arises out of an inner longing for that which is unexperienced and unknown. Each personality should be allowed to unfold itself freely, according to its own genius, individual impulses, and idiosyncrasies. Romantics seek beauty, color, and adventure in out-of-the-way places and events and among the common people. The exotic is preferred over the familiar, rural life over that of the city. Prescribed unities and forms are rejected for that which is different, unconventional, novel, and spontaneous. Romantics have a deep interest in the past, especially the Middle Ages, as well as nonclassical (Nordic) mythology, folklore, and primitivism, and they contributed greatly to recovering and publishing long-forgotten medieval historical records and literature. Finally romantic art seems on the one hand to be sensuous, concrete, and down to earth, yet simultaneously it is much more visionary and even mystical. As Novalis put it, in the romantic view of life ‘world becomes dream, dream becomes world.’

The impact of romanticism on religious and theological developments is significant. To be sure, its emphasis on human self-consciousness, personal creative powers, the natural goodness of man, and the pantheistic interfusion of real and ideal, finite and infinite, spirit and matter leads to a glorification of man’s powers of self-expression and to pride. Many romantics refused to believe in any power superior to their own genius, and the objects of their devotion – nature, liberty, beauty, love, brotherhood – essentially circle back to the worshiper and function as ways of asserting human self-sufficiency.” [94]

Examples of Romantics were the Unitarian Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), the poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), the immoral Lord Byron (1788-1824), the atheist poet Percy Shelley, the poet John Keats (1795-1821), the poet and artist William Blake (1757-1827), Victor Hugo (1802-1885), Johann Goethe (1749-1832), the philosopher George Hegel (1770-1831) and the liberal Protestant theologian Friedrich Schleirmacher (1768-1834).

Romanticism was a predecessor of the present New Age Postmodern movement in literature, art, philosophy and religion.


The supposed greatest book of the 20th Century


In a special supplement (page R4), the weekend “Australian” newspaper (December 15-16, 2001) published in Australia, recorded that worldwide sales of “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit” had exceeded 100 million by that stage and that in three British polls in the late 1990’s “The Lord of the Rings” was nominated as the greatest book of the 20th Century.

These above British polls probably are a good indication of the spiritual state of Britain at present. Most people of Britain regard a paganised religious fairy story as being a greater book than the Bible.


Finding God or Satan in “The Lord of the Rings”


There is a so-called Christian book called “Finding God in the Lord of the Rings”. Such books as this claim that there are symbolic representations of allegories of God and/or Jesus Christ in Tolkien’s “The Lord of the Rings”. This is even though:


a)        Tolkien and his friend C.S. Lewis insist there are no symbolic representations of God, Jesus Christ or the Gospel in “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit”.

b)        The “god” which Tolkien depicts in the Lord of the Rings is an unbiblical pagan god who is not present everywhere and who can only be approached indirectly through intermediatories who are rational minds or spirits without bodies. Tolkien’s pagan “god” approves of so-called “white” sorcerers or wizards, something which the true God of the Bible hates.

c)        In “The Lord of the Rings”, Tolkien uncritically writes some other pagan unbiblical ideas.


Books like “Finding God in the Lord of the Rings” are good indicators not of how Christian or Biblical “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit” are, but of how much the pagan philosophies of Romanticism and Post-modernism and New Age religion has been mixed with Biblical ideas in the minds of many modern churchgoers.

In the late 1700’s, 1800’s and 1900’s, the followers of the philosophy of Romanticism always pretended that witchcraft, sorcery, occult and communicating with the spirits of the dead (which were actually demons) were just exciting fairy stories which were only real in the realm of fantasy and imagination. Romantics never fully exposed how wicked and Satanic all these practices really are.

The modern philosophy of post-modernism says that there is no such thing as absolute truth and that our own personal invented readings of a text are just as valid as what the original author of the text may have later stated that the text meant when he or she originally wrote or composed it.

A pagan post-modern approach to interpreting the Bible would be to say that everyone’s contrary interpretations of the Bible are correct, despite the fact that God originally had a particular meaning when He inspired His Biblical authors to write what they wrote.

It is true that fallible Christians interpret the Bible differently, but this does not mean that our infinitely wise God accepts our false interpretations as being true understandings of what He originally meant when He inspired His Biblical authors to write His revelations down. Note that many times throughout the Gospels, Jesus corrected various false Jewish interpretations of the Old Testament.

New Age religion is the modern mixture of various pagan ancient and present day Eastern religions and philosophies with some Christian elements sometimes mixed in.


Symbols, types, signs and allegories in the Bible


In the Bible, there are many symbols, types and signs of Jesus’ death and resurrection (see Matthew 12:39, 16:4, Luke 11:29-30, Hebrews 9:9-10 and 10:1-26). Galatians 5:22-26 refers to the fact that Abraham’s sons Isaac and Ishmael were Old Testament allegories or symbolic representations of two of God’s covenants. Hebrews 8:5 records that the Israelite priesthood served “the copy and shadow of the heavenly things as Moses was divinely instructed…” Hebrews 10:1-10 reveals that the sacrifices of the law were “a shadow of the good things to come…” through Jesus Christ, His death and resurrection.

But note never once in the whole Old and New Testaments is there one example of something evil like adultery, homosexuality, robbery, witchcraft, sorcery, wizardry, occult, incest, paedophilia or rape being used as a symbol, allegory, sign or type of Jesus Christ, His death and resurrection.


Biblically judging books of fiction


It is not sinful to write books of fiction which have God and Jesus Christ depicted in them as long as the author does not portray God or Christ in ways contrary to the Bible. For example, the author of the book and film “Ben Hur” depict God and Christ in generally Biblical ways.

Similarly in his fictional book “Piercing the darkness”, Frank Peretti presents the battle between the Kingdom of God and the kingdom of darkness, but never presents sorcerers, wizards, witches or occultists as being on God’s side.

It is not sinful to write fictional books which present allegories or symbolic representations of the Gospel or teachings of the Bible. John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” is a good example of this type of book. But note there is a clear and Biblically sound identification of good and evil in the symbolic characters in this book.

Also “Pilgrim’s Progress” does not sinfully symbolically represent or allegorise God or Jesus Christ, the Gospel, godly principles or godly practices in the form of people, things or practices which the Bible clearly defines as evil. For example, Bunyan never once symbolically represents God or Christ as murderers, paedophiles, adulterers, homosexuals, thieves, sorcerers, witches, wizards, idol-worshippers or rapists.


A Lego promotions magazine sales pitch


In the “Lego” promotions magazine dated January-May 2004 (page 30), there is a page promoting Harry Potter Lego. It states: “Introducing the all-new LEGO Harry potter TM assortment available from May 2004…(…if you can’t see it, you are probably a Muggle!)”

Note the above sales pitch suggests that anyone who does not buy Harry Potter Lego is a Muggle – people who hated and despised magic in any form. In “Harry Potter”, calling someone a muggle is like calling them a freak or weirdo.


Myths or fables


Shows like “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Harry Potter” and “Lord of the Rings” are what the New Testament calls “myths” or “fables”. The original Greek New Testament word for “myth” or “fable” is “muthos” which means “a legendary story or account, normally about supernatural beings, events or cultural heroes, and in the New Testament always with an unfavourable connotation”. [95]

In 1 Timothy 1:4, 4:7, 2 Timothy 4:4, Titus 1:14 and 2 Peter 1:16, God commands us to avoid these allegorical mythical fictional stories about supernatural events or beings which suggest things contrary to God’s Word.

When the Old and New Testaments were written, there was no genre of literature specifically called fairy stories or fairy tales. But note Paul’s strong warnings about myths or fables applies also to fairy stories because myths, fables and fairy stories share many features in common.

Note the Bible warns us very clearly of the great dangers of using myths and fables as representations of God, Jesus Christ or His Gospel. In 1 Timothy 1:14, God commands: “nor give heed to fables…which cause disputes rather than godly edification which is in faith.” In 1 Timothy 4:7, God instructs: “But reject profane and old wives fables…” In those days, many religious myths or fables were passed on orally to young people by older female story-tellers.

In Titus 1:13-14 Paul told Titus, the Apostle and head pastor of the church in Crete: “This testimony is true. Therefore rebuke them soundly, that they may be sound in the faith, not giving heed to Jewish fables…” The Jews invented many unbiblical religious fables or myths which corrupted people’s faith in God.

In 2 Peter 1:16, the Apostle Peter rejected the use of cleverly devised religious myths or fables when preaching and teaching about Jesus Christ: “For we did not follow cunningly devised fables when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of His majesty.”

Some modern churchgoers ignore and disobey the warnings in the previous verses. For example, on April 5, 2004, the “Sydney Morning Herald” newspaper (page    ) reported that an Anglican minister in England had taken classes “at K…High School on the meaning of Easter within the blockbuster films Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter.” This Anglican minister is using cleverly devised fables or myths containing supernatural elements to try to make known the power of the Lord Jesus Christ in His death and resurrection.


Scriptural guidelines to judge the worth of fairy stories


Here are some Scriptural guidelines as to how to judge fairy stories:


a)        If the fairy story contains witches, wizards, sorcerers and occultists, they must be depicted as evil and/or against the real God.

b)        If the fairy story includes miracles, they must be clearly depicted as either done by God or through evil witches, sorcerers, wizards or occultists. There should never be examples of God performing His miracles through witches, sorcerers, occultists or wizards.

c)        It is not necessary to mention Satan and demons in fairy stories as long as all witches, sorcerers, wizards and occultists are depicted as evil people and all sorcery, witchcraft and occult shown to be evil.

d)        The fairy story should not present adultery, rape, sex before marriage, stealing, murder, homosexuality or any other practice condemned in the Bible in a positive or accepting way.


Charles Colson on fantasy and myths


In his “Get Myth-Inventing Stories to Live By”, Christian author Charles Colson wrote: “The age of myth seems to be returning…In themselves, fantasy and creativity are good things – gifts from God. The great Christian fantasy writer J.R.R. Tolkien explained that when we create imaginary worlds, we’re simply copying our Maker. Tolkien called this ‘refracted light’ – a human reflection of the creative impulse first exercised by God when He created the world.

Many Christians, including C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Dorothy Sayers, have used stories – including fantasy and science fiction – to teach Christian truths.” [96]

Colson is right in saying fantasy and creativity are gifts of God. But he was wrong in not emphasising that creativity or fantasy are sinfully abused if they make use of concepts, ideas and practices which are contrary to God’s Word. In 2 Corinthians 10:4-5, Paul teaches: “For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds, casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ.”


Some supposedly “Christian” medieval fairy stories


In the following, I will give you examples of supposedly “Christian” fairy stories written in the Middle Ages. These fairy stories presented in a positive accepting way:


a)        sex between a woman and a demon

b)        obtaining occult prophecies through astrology

c)        a supposedly “Christian” sorcerer, who gives advice to the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury and supernaturally empowers a so-called “Christian” king to rape a Christian Duke’s wife.


These fairy stories were presented by their authors as being historical, even though the stories were a probable mixture of fiction and truth.


Merlin was a supposed result of sex between a woman and a demon


An indication of the mixing of pagan religion with Christianity in parts of the Middle Ages in Britain can be seen in the partly historical and partly mythical “The History of the Kings of Britain” by the so-called “Christian” author Geoffrey of Monmouth (died 1155), the canon of the secular college of St Georges at Oxford and from 1152 A.D. the Bishop of St Asaph in North Wales.

In this book, Bishop Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote that Merlin the sorcerer, who supposedly assisted the legendary King Arthur of England, was conceived as a result of a nun having sex with a male demon called an incubus: “As they argued, Dinabutius said to Merlin: ‘Why do you try to compete with me, fathead? How can we two be equal in skill? I myself am of royal blood on both sides of my family. As for you, nobody knows who you are, for you never had a father!’ At this word the messengers looked up. They examined Merlin closely and asked the standers-by who he was. They were told that no one knew who his father had been, but that his mother was daughter of a king of Demetia and that she lived in that same town, in St Peter’s Church along with some nuns.

The messengers lost no time. They hurried off to the governor of the town and ordered him in the King’s name to send Merlin and his mother to Vortigern. When the governor knew the object of their errand, he immediately sent Merlin and his mother to Vortigern, so that the King could do what he wanted with them. When they were brought into his presence, the King received the mother with due courtesy, for he knew that she came of a noble family. Then he began to ask her by what man she had conceived the lad. ‘By my living soul, Lord King’, she said, ‘and by your living soul, too, I did not have relations with any man to make me bear this child. I know only this: that, when I was in our private apartments with my sister nuns, some one used to come to me in the form of a most handsome young man. He would often hold me tightly in his arms and kiss me. When he had been some little time with me he would disappear, so that I could no longer see him. Many times, too, when I was sitting alone, he would talk with me, without becoming visible; and when he came to see me in this way he would often make love with me, as a man would do, and in that way he made me pregnant. You must decide in your wisdom, my Lord, who was the father of this lad, for apart from what I have told, I have never had relations with a man.’

The King was amazed by what he heard. He ordered a certain Maugantius to be summoned to him, so that this man could tell whether or not what the woman said was possible. Maugantius was brought in and listened to the whole story, point by point. ‘In the books written by our sages’, he said to Vortigern, ‘and in many historical narratives, I have discovered that quite a number of men have been born in this way. As Apuleius asserts in the De deo Socratis, between the moon and the earth live spirits which we call incubus demons. They have partly the nature of men and partly that of angels, and when they wish they assume mortal shapes and have intercourse with women. It is possible that one of these appeared to this woman and begot the lad in her.’

When he had listened to all this, Merlin went up to the King and asked: ‘Why have my mother and I been brought into your presence?’ ‘My magicians have advised me,’ answered Vortigern, ‘that I should look for a fatherless man, so that my building can be sprinkled with his blood and thus stand firm.’”[97]


Merlin’s predictive prophecies based on astrology


Bishop Geoffery also had a chapter entitled “The Prophecies of Merlin” in which he records many occultic prophecies which Merlin supposedly gave about the future of England. Here is a sample from this chapter in which Merlin gives predictions based on the wicked practice of astrology: “Before the amber glow of Mercury the bright light of the Sun shall grow dim and this will strike horror into those who witness it. The planet Mercury, born in Arcady, shall change its shield; and the Helmet of Mars shall call to Venus. The Helmet of Mars shall cast a shadow and in its rage Mercury shall over-run its orbit. Iron Orion shall bare its sword. The watery Sun shall torment the clouds. Jupiter shall abandon its pre-ordained paths and Venus desert its appointed circuits. The malice of the planet Saturn will pour down like rain, killing mortal men as though with a curved sickle. The twelve mansions of the stars will weep to see their inmates transgress so. The Gemini will cease their wonted embraces and will dispatch Aquarius to the fountains. The scales of Libra will hang awry, until Aries props them up with its curving horns. The tail of Scorpio shall generate lightning and Cancer will fight with the Sun. Virgo shall climb on the back of Sagittarius and so let droop its maiden blossoms. The Moon’s chariot shall run amok in the Zodiac and the Pleides will burst into tears. None of these will return to the duty expected of it. [98]


Merlin supernaturally enabled King Uther to rape another man’s wife


Bishop Geoffrey of Monmouth also wrote about Merlin performing some supernatural sorcery and occult so that the supposedly “Christian” King Uther Pendragon could commit adultery and rape the wife of the Christian Duke of Cornwall. Note rape involves having sex with another person without the latter’s valid consent, regardless of whether force, threats or violence are absent. Consent obtained through the fraudulent impersonation of a third person is not valid consent because the person consenting was consenting only to sex with the third person whom the impersonator was pretending to be. Bishop Geoffrey wrote: “The next Eastertide Uther told the nobles of his kingdom to assemble in that same town of London, so that he could wear his crown and celebrate so important a feast-day with proper ceremony…Among the others there was present Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall, with his wife Ygerna, who was the most beautiful woman in Britain. When the King saw her there among the other women, he was immediately filled with desire for her, with the result that he took no notice of anything else, but devoted all his attention to her. To her and to no one else he kept ordering plates of food to be passed and to her, too, he kept sending his own personal attendants with golden goblets of wine. He kept smiling at her and engaging her in sprightly conversation. When Ygerna’s husband saw what was happening, he was so annoyed that he withdrew from the court without taking leave. No one present could persuade him to return, for he was afraid of losing the one object that he loved better than anything else. Uther lost his temper and ordered Gorlois to come back to court, so that he, the King, could seek satisfaction for the way in which he had been insulted. Gorlois refused to obey. The King was furious and swore an oath that he would ravage Gorlois’ lands, unless the latter gave him immediate satisfaction.

Without more ado, while the bad blood remained between the two of them, the King collected a huge army together and hurried off to the Duchy of Cornwall, where he set fire to towns and castles. Gorlois’ army was the smaller of the two and he did not dare to meet the King in battle. He preferred instead to garrison his castles and to bide his time until he could receive help from Ireland. As he was more worried about his wife than he was about himself, he left her in the castle of Tintagel, on the sea-coast, which he thought was the safest place under his control. He himself took refuge in a fortified camp called Dimilioc, so that, if disaster overtook them, they should not both be endangered together. When the King heard of this, he went to the encampment where Gorlois was, besieged it and cut off every line of approach

Finally, after a week had gone by, the King’s passion for Ygerna became more than he could bear. He called to him, Ulfin of Ridearadoch, one of his soldiers and a familiar friend, and told him what was on his mind. ‘I am desperately in love with Ygerna’, said Uther, ‘and if I cannot have her I am convinced that I shall suffer a physical breakdown. You must tell me how I can satisfy my desire for her, for otherwise I shall die of the passion which is consuming me.’

Merlin was summoned immediately. When he appeared in the King’s presence, he was ordered to suggest how the King could have his way with Ygerna. When Merlin saw the torment which the King was suffering because of this woman, he was amazed at the strength of his passion. ‘If you are to have your wish’, he said, ‘you must make use of methods which are quite new and until now unheard-of in your day. By my drugs I know how to give you the precise appearance of Gorlois, so that you will resemble him in every respect. If you do what I say, I will make you exactly like him, and Ulfin exactly like Gorlois’ companion, Jordan of Tintagel. I will change my own appearance, too, and come with you. In this way you will be able to go safely to Ygerna in her castle and be admitted.’

The King agreed and listened carefully to what he had to do. In the end he handed the siege over to his subordinates, took Merlin’s drugs, and was changed into the likeness of Gorlois. Ulfin was changed into Jordan and Merlin into a man called Britaelis, so that no one could tell what they had previously looked like. They then set off for Tintagel and came to the Castle in the twilight. The moment the guard was told that his leader was approaching, he opened the gates and the men were let in. Who, indeed, could possibly have suspected anything, once it was thought that Gorlois himself had come? The King spent that night with Ygerna and satisfied his desire by making love with her. He had deceived her by the disguise which he had taken. He had deceived her, too, by the lying things that he said to her, things which he planned with great skill. He said that he had come out secretly from his besieged encampment so that he might make sure that all was well with her, whom he loved so dearly, and with his castle, too. She naturally believed all that he said and refused him nothing that he asked. That night she conceived Arthur, the most famous of men, who subsequently won great renown by his outstanding bravery.

Meanwhile, when it was discovered at the siege of Dimiloc that the King was no longer present, his army, acting without his instructions, tried to breach the walls and challenge the beleaguered Duke to battle. The Duke, equally ill-advisedly, sallied forth with his men, imagining apparently that he could resist such a host of armed men with his own tiny band. As the struggle between them swayed this way and that, Gorlois was among the first to be killed. His men were scattered and the besieged camp was captured.

Not until the outrages which followed this daring act had finally subsided did messengers come to Ygerna to announce the death of the Duke and the end of the siege. When they saw the King sitting beside Ygerna in the likeness of their leader, they blushed red with astonishment to see that the man whom they had left behind dead in the siege had in effect arrived there safely before them. Of course, they did not know of the drugs prepared by Merlin. The King put his arms round the Duchess and laughed aloud to hear these reports. ‘I am not dead’, he said. ‘Indeed, as you see, I am very much alive! However, the destruction of my camp saddens me very much and so does the slaughter of my comrades. What is more, there is great danger that the King may come this way and capture us in this castle. I will go out to meet him and make peace with him, lest even worse should befall us.’

The King set out and made his way towards his own army, abandoning his disguise as Gorlois and becoming Utherpendragon once more. When he learned all that had happened, he mourned for the death of Gorlois; but he was happy, all the same, that Ygerna was freed from her marital obligations. He returned to Tintagel Castle, captured it and seized Ygerna at the same time, she being what he really wanted. From that day on they lived together as equals, united by their great love for each other; and they had a son and a daughter. The boy was called Arthur and the girl Anna.” [99]

Note Merlin supported King Uther in his murdering of the Duke of Cornwall, Ygerna’s husband. How different Merlin was from the godly prophet Nathan in the Old Testament! Nathan rebuked David for committing adultery with Bathesheba and for murdering her husband.


Another medieval author recorded Merlin assisting this rape


In his “Chapter 2 “How Uther Pendragon made war on the Duke of Cornwall, and how by the means of Merlin he lay by the Duchess and begat Arthur” in his book “Le Morte D’Arthur”, the medieval author Thomas Mallory also wrote how the sorcerer Merlin promised to supernaturally enable supposedly Christian King Uther Pendragon to have sex with the wife of the Duke of Cornwall. Mallory called her Ingraine instead of Ygerna.

Mallory wrote: “Then Ulfius was glad, and rode on more than a pace till that he came to King Uther Pendragon, and told him he had met with Merlin.

‘Where is he?’ said the king.

‘Sir,’ said Ulfius, ‘he will not dwell long.’

Therewithal Ulfius was ware where Merlin stood at the porch of the pavilion’s door. And then Merlin was bound to come to the king. When King Uther saw him, he said he was welcome.

‘Sir,’ said Merlin ‘I know all your heart every deal. So ye will be sworn unto me as ye be a true king anointed, to fulfil my desire, ye shall have your desire.’

Then the king was sworn upon the four Evangelists.

‘Sir’, said Merlin, ‘this is my desire: the first night that ye shall lie by Igaine ye shall get a child on her, and when that is born, that it shall be delivered to me for to nourish there as I will have it; for it shall be your worship, and the child’s avail as mickle as the child is worth.’

‘I will well,’ said the king, ‘as thou wilt have it.’

‘Now make you ready,’ said Merlin, ‘this night ye shall lie with Igraine in the Castle of Tintagel, and ye shall be like the duke her husband, Ulfius shall be like Sir Brastias, a knight of the duke’s, and I will be like a knight that hight Sir Jordans, a knight of the duke’s. But wait ye make not many questions with her nor her men, but say ye are diseased, and so hie you to bed, and rise not on the morn till I come to you, for the Castle of Tintagel is but ten miles hence.’

So this was done as they devised. But the Duke of Tintagel espied how the king rode from the siege of Terrabil, and therefore that night he issued out of the castle at a postern for to have distressed the king’s host. And so, through his own issue, the duke himself was slain or-ever the king came at the Castle of Tintagel.

So after the death of the duke, King Uther lay with Igraine more than three hours after his death, and begat on her that night Arthur; and, or day came, Merlin came to the king, and bad him make him ready, and so he kissed the lady Igraine and departed in all haste. But when the lady heard tell of the duke her husband, and by all record he was dead or-ever King Uther came to her, then she marvelled who that might be that lay with her in likeness of her lord; so she mourned privily and held her peace.

Then all the barons by one assent prayed the king of accord betwixt the lady Igraine and him; the king gave them leave, for fain would he have been accorded with her. So the king put all the trust in Ulfius to entreat between them, so by the entreaty at the last the king and she met together.

‘Now will we do well,’ said Ulfius. ‘Our king is a lusty knight and wifeless, and my lady Igraine is a passing fair lady; it were great joy unto us all, and it might please the king to make her his queen.

Unto that they all well accorded and moved it to the king. And anon, like a lusty knight, he assented thereto with good will, and so in all haste they were married in a morning with great mirth and joy. [100]

To try to supposedly “Christianise” Merlin’s use of demon-empowered sorcery and occult, Mallory later referred to Merlin counselling the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Archbishop approving of a magical sword: Chapter 5: How Arthur was chosen king, and of wonders and marvels of a sword taken out of a stone by the said Arthur

Then stood the realm in great jeopardy long while, for every lord that was mighty of men made him strong, and many weened to have been king. Then Merlin went to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and counselled him to send for all the lords of the realm, and all the gentlemen of arms, that they should to London come by Christmas, upon pain of cursing; and for this cause: that Jehu, that was born on that night, that He would of his great mercy show some miracle, as He was come to be king of mankind, for to show some miracle who should be rightwise king of this realm. So the Archbishop, by the advice of Merlin, sent for all the lords and gentlemen of arms that they should come by Christmas even unto London. And many of them made them clean of their life, that their pray might be the more acceptable unto God.

So in the greatest church in London (whether it were Paul’s or not the French book maketh no mention) all the estates were long or day in the church for to pray. And when matins and the first mass was done, there was seen in the churchyard, against the high altar, a great stone four square, like unto a marble stone, and in midst thereof was like an anvil of steel a foot on high, and therein stuck a fair sword naked by the point, and letters there were written in gold about the sword that saiden thus: - WHOSO PULLETH OUT THIS SWORD OF THIS STONE AND ANVIL, IS RIGHTWISE KING BORN OF ALL ENGLAND. Then the people marvelled, and told it to the Archbishop.

‘I command,’ said the Archbishop, ‘that ye keep you within your church, and pray unto God still; that no man touch the sword till the high mass be all done.’

So when all masses were done all the lords went to behold the stone and the sword. And when they saw the Scripture, some assayed, such as would have been king. But none might stir the sword nor move it.

‘He is not here,’ said the Archbishop, ‘that shall achieve the sword, but doubt not God will make him known.’” [101]

Then to try to supposedly “Christianise” King Uther’s rape and sex outside of marriage, Mallory claimed that the Duke of Cornwall died three hours before King Uther raped the Duke’s wife by pretending to be the Duke. In Chapter 8 “How King Arthur held in Wales, at a Pentecost, a great Feast and what kings and lords came to his feast” in Book 1, Mallory wrote: “After fifteen days there came Merlin among them into the city of Caerleon. Then all the kings were passing glad of Merlin, and asked him, ‘For what cause is that boy Arthur made your king?’

‘Sirs,’ said Merlin, ‘I shall tell you the cause, for he is King Uther Pendragon’s son, born in wedlock, gotten on Igraine, the Duke’s wife of Tintagel.’

‘Then is he a bastard,’ they said all.

‘Nay,’ said Merlin, ‘after the death of the duke, more than three hours, was Arthur begotten, and thirteen days after, King Uther wedded Igraine; and therefore I prove him he is no bastard, and who saith nay, he shall be king and overcome all his enemies; and , or he die, he shall be long king of all England, and have under his obeisance Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, and more realms than I will now rehearse.”[102]

But even if the Duke died in battle three hours before Uther by Merlin’s sorcery had sex with the Duke’s wife under the false pretence that Uther was the Duke, this was still an act of fornication and rape.


Finding God and/or Jesus in various pagan religions


This syncretistic approach of supposedly finding Jesus symbolised in “Harry Potter”, “Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit” is similar to saying:


a)         the Lord Jesus Christ is symbolically represented by the lord Krishna in his battles with evil in the Hindu writing “The Bhagavad Gita”. (This is even though the Bhagavad Gita teaches foolishly that human spirits have existed eternally and the human spirit of every person on Earth is the god Krishna. In other words, this Hindu book teaches the sinful philosophy that humans are gods.)

b)         the Old Testament Israelites in Elijah’s time saw the battle between the Lord God and Satan symbolically represented by the Ras Shamrah epic story of the battle between Ba’al, the pagan god of life and Mot the pagan god of death.

c)         Solomon saw the Lord represented in his wives’ books on Chemosh and Molech, pagan gods who demanded human sacrifices.


Imagine the following advertisement in the “Jerusalem Post”: “Buy our two newest bestsellers “Finding Yahweh in Baal worship in the Ras Shamrah epic” and “Discovering the Lord in Chemosh and Molech” by two of our top religious authors. Don’t be narrow minded! Instead broaden your education.” Dating from about 1400 B.C., the Ras Shamrah Tablets consist of religious epic poetry referring to the pagan gods Baal, Anath, Asherah and Mot. [103]


Baal as a symbolic allegory of Christ?


The following was written by a scribe named Ilimilku in the first half of the fourteenth century B.C. and was from the Mediterranean port city of Ugarit in the Near East. The writing is supposedly one of the great classics of ancient Near Eastern literature. It is a religious fable or myth about the pagan gods Baal, Dagan, Anat, Asherah, Astarte, Hadad and Mot or Death. It especially focuses on the battle between Baal and Mot, the god of death. Here is a quote from this religious fable: “She (Asherah) implored the bull, El the Compassionate, she entreated the Creator of All. Then she raised her eyes and looked: Asherah saw Baal coming, the Mistress of the Peoples approaching.”

The name “El” refers to the Creator of all and the father of the pagan gods. So if we were foolish enough, we could present the above quote from this fictional literature classic about the spiritual battle between Baal and Mot as an symbolic representation or allegory of Jesu Christ’s battle with Satan, with El being symbolic of God the Father viewing the contest.

Here are some more selections from this fictional religious epic: “Let me tell you, Prince Baal, let me repeat, Rider on the Clouds: behold, your enemy, Baal, behold, you will kill your enemy, behold, you will annihilate your foes. You will take your eternal kingship, your dominion forever and ever…

Astarte shouted Baal’s name: Hail, Baal the Conqueror! hail, Rider on the Clouds!...

So then, lads, enter: at Anat’s feet bow down and adore, prostrate yourselves, worship her, and say to the Virgin Anat, repeat to the Mistress of the Peoples: Message of Baal the Conqueror, the word of the Conqueror of Warriors: Remove war from the earth, set love in the ground, pour peace into the heart of the earth, rain down love on the heart of the fields…

We came upon Baal: he had fallen to the ground. Baal the Conqueror has died; the prince, the lord of the earth, has perished…

And if Baal the Conqueror lives, if the prince, the lord of the earth, has revived, in a dream of El the Kind, the Compassionate, in a vision of the Creator of All, let the heavens rain down oil, let the wadis run with honey; then I will know that Baal the Conqueror lives, that the prince, the lord of the earth, has revived. In a dream of El the Kind, the Compassionate, in a vision of the Creator of All, the heavens rained down oil, the wadis ran with honey.”

If we were silly enough, we could interpret the above as meaning the following:


a)      Baal’s supposed eternal kingship, everlasting dominion and role as a conqueror is a symbolic representation or allegory of the facts Jesus Christ has an eternal Kingship, His dominion will last forever and He is the Conqueror of Satan and death.

b)      The pagan virgin goddess Anat is symbolic of Mary, the virgin mother of Jesus Christ.

c)      Baal is a symbolic representation of the God of love and peace of the Bible.

d)      As an allegory or symbol of Jesus’ death for humans, Baal died also.

e)      Symbolic of Jesus’ resurrection, Baal was revived from death.


By doing all of the above allegorising and symbolising, we could lead the Israelites to Mount Carmel and oppose Elijah by telling him that Baal and the God of the Bible are the same. But note Elijah would not condone such unbiblical types of allegorising and compromise. He saw the Lord God and Baal as being totally opposed.

It is little wonder Elijah felt this way when Baal worship was very accepting of witchcraft and sexual immorality. Jezebel, the apostle of wicked Baal worship in Israel (see 1 Kings 16:30-21:25) practiced witchcraft (see 2 Kings 9:22).


Some of the Satanic witchcraft in Harry Potter


In the story ‘Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone’ (page 53), many young boys and girls enrol at Hogwart’s School of Wizardry and Witchcraft. It is very wrong to give young readers the impression that it is okay for children like themselves to enrol in such a wicked school. God hates such schools.

In addition, this book states that one of the books set for study at this school is called ‘The Dark Forces: A Guide To Self-Protection’. This latter book teaches the deceptive lie that we can protect ourselves against the Satanic power of black magic by so-called “white” witchcraft or “white” wizardry.

Also note Chapter 10 of ‘Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone’ is called Hallowe’en and on page 62, it records that Harry Potter loved reading a witchcraft manual called ‘Curses and Counter-Curses (Bewitch Your Friends and Befuddle Your Enemies with the Latest Revenges’…). But remember God’s love “does not rejoice in iniquity” (see 1 Corinthians 13:6) and Romans 12:19-21 commands us not to take personal revenge on our enemies.

Using potions of human blood, bone and flesh


In the book “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire”, the sorcerer Lord Voldemort’s body is resurrected from the dead through using the supposedly supernatural power of a potion which included a part of the body of his servant, a bone from the body of Voldemort’s dead father and some of the blood of Harry Potter – Voldemort’s enemy (pages 554-558 and 569-570). Through sorcery, Voldemort had previously killed his own father (page 589), Harry Potter’s parents (page 23) and others (pages 16 and 19).

After Voldemort had killed Harry Potter’s parents, Voldemort tried to kill Harry with a curse (page 23). But the curse rebounded on him because of the supposed ‘white’ supernatural power of Harry Potter’s mother’s death (page 570 and 573). All of the above is typical of real witchcraft’s usage of blood, parts of human bodies and death for calling on the supernatural powers of demons. A Biblical example of this occurred in 2 Kings 3:27 when the pagan Moabite king killed his son as a sacrifice to his demonic gods to try to obtain their supernatural help.

In “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire”, there are also occurrences of an occultic dream (pages 20-21), occultic miracles, for example, involving Harry Potter supernaturally regrowing the bones of his right arm (page 22), an appearance of a ghost (page 154), the spirit of the wizard Lord Voldemort inhabiting the bodies of snakes and animals (page 567) and Voldemort’s spirit trying to possess the bodies of other humans (pages 568-569).

Matthew 17:1-4 records the spirits of Elijah and Moses appeared on Earth after they died. But other appearances of spirits are not humans but instead are angels or demons. The Bible teaches that demons and not human spirits can possess animal bodies and the human bodies of others (see Matthew 8:28-34 and Mark 5:1-20).

Anyone who imagines the above things are spiritually healthy for Christians to read obviously knows little about the Biblical teaching on sorcery, witchcraft, Satan and casting out of demons and is living in a fantasy world like Alice in Wonderland. In Romans 12:9, God instead commands: “…hate what is evil (loathe all ungodliness, turn in horror from wickedness)…” (Amp V).

The book “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire” also teaches the wicked lie that certain children are born with the supernatural powers of sorcerers (page 24). ). In addition, this book calls humans, who do not have witchcraft and sorcery powers, by the derogatory name “Muggles” (pages 23 and 77). When referring to the hero Harry’s uncle, aunt and cousin, the book says, “They were Muggles (non-magic people) who hated and despised magic in any form, which meant that Harry was about as welcome in their house as dry rot.” (page 23). This is a subtle form of brainwashing against adults and children who do not approve of sorcery and witchcraft.

Also the book refers numerous times to a newspaper called the “Daily Prophet” which focuses on witchcraft, occult and sorcery (pages 132 and 381). The title of this newspaper suggests that supposed “white” witches and “white” wizards are true prophets. The truth, however, is they are false prophets empowered by demons.

Proverbs 8:13 shows that people who really have a healthy fear of God will hate known evils: “The fear of the Lord is to hate evil…”


They glorify the works of Satan


Shows like “Sabrina”, “Charmed” and “Buffy” and movies like “Harry Potter” and “Lord of the Rings” glorify the works of Satan. Some of the works of Satan are witchcraft, sorcery and occult.


All sorcerers and occultists are opponents of God and deceivers


It is astonishing that any Christian could suggest that any sorcerer, witch or occultist can be Christianised and allegorised so that instead of them representing the kingdom of darkness, they represent God’s Kingdom.     

Throughout the Bible, we see that sorcerers and occultists, whom many pagan religious people regarded as white and good, were persecutors and opponents of God’s prophets and His people. Examples are:


a)             the Egyptian sorcerers who opposed Moses’ ministry (see Exodus 7:9-12).

b)             Jezebel the Queen of Israel who practiced witchcraft (see 2 Kings 9:22) and who murdered many of God’s prophets (see 1 Kings 18:4), tried to murder the prophet Elijah (see 1 Kings 19:2) and with her husband Ahab tried to replace the worship of the Lord with the worship of the pagan god Ba’al (see 1 Kings 16:29-33 and 21:25). Ba’al worship included witchcraft, sexual orgies and heterosexual and homosexual temple prostitution.

c)             the Chaldean occultists who tried to have the prophet Daniel’s three godly friends burnt to death for not worshipping a pagan golden image (see Daniel 3:8-12).

d)             the sorcerer Bar Jesus who tried to turn the Roman pro-consul Sergius Paulus against the Apostle Paul.


Also as Acts 8:9-11 reveals, a sorcerer named Simon deceived a whole nation into believing His miracles were from God: “But there was a certain man called Simon, who previously practiced sorcery in the city and astonished the people of Samaria, claiming that he was someone great, to whom they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying ‘This man is the great power of God.’ And they heeded him because he had astonished them with his sorceries for a long time.”

If we take to its logical conclusions the unbiblical idea that we can Christianise and allegorise evil to such an extent that it becomes representative of God, then we could write the following “Christian” books:


(i)             “The Godly Adventures of Queen Jezebel the Witch”.

(ii)           “The Great Power of God represented by Simon the Sorcerer”.

(iii)          “Introducing God’s All-Star ‘White’ Sorcerers – Moses, Harry Potter, Gandalf, Elijah and Elisha”.

(iv)         “The Spirit-filled Chaldean Occultists in the prophet Daniel’s time”.





The “Christianising” of “Playboy” and homosexual shows approach


If we follow the example of those who try to “Christianise” and allegorise “Harry Potter”, “Sabrina”, “Lord of the Rings”, “Buffy” and so on, we could try to “Christianise” and allegorise pornographic books and television shows which promote homosexuality. For example, we can foolishly:


(i)             write a book called “Seeing Jesus in a Playboy magazine”. We could include nude pictures and explicit accounts of people having sex outside of marriage and say how this represents Jesus freeing people from bondages and legalism.

(ii)           teach our children that the homosexual-promoting television show “Queer as Folk” is an allegory of God’s Kingdom fighting against the forces of oppression and injustice. This is the “seeing Jesus in homosexual shows” approach.


They have unknowingly made a truce with the kingdom of darkness


The Bible refers to the war between the Kingdom of God and the kingdom of darkness (see Revelation 12:1-17), to believers individual warfare with Satan (see Ephesians 6:10-18) and to believers fighting the good fight of faith (see 1 Timothy 6:12). In Acts 26:18, God emphasised to Paul that He wanted to use Paul to turn people from the kingdom of darkness and Satan to God’s Kingdom of light: “to open their eyes and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me.”

But tragically many churchgoers have unwisely imagined that they can assist the expansion of the Kingdom of God by making an unofficial truce with the kingdom of darkness. These churchgoers have made this unofficial truce by imagining that if they do not attack and oppose the witchcraft, sorcery and occult in books, movies and television shows like “Harry Potter”, “Buffy”, “Charmed”, “Lord of the Rings”, “Sabrina” and “The Hobbit”, but instead try to “Christianise” and allegorise the wicked Satanic practices which these texts justify, condone and not once disapprove of, then somehow this will lead Christians to be more committed to God and will result in many unbelievers being saved.

But like all attempted truces and compromisers with the kingdom of darkness, these tactics are backfiring. Instead of leading multitudes of unbelievers to the Kingdom of God and of Christians becoming more devoted to God, there has been a massive increase in unhealthy interest in sorcery, witchcraft and occult among thousands of churchgoing children and among many non-Christian children who attend Christian schools which refuse to oppose these books, films and television shows.

1 John 1:5-6 warns: “This is the message which we have heard from Him and declare to you, that God is light and in Him is no darkness at all. If we say that we have fellowship with Him, and walk in darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth.”

Walking in darkness includes trying to Christianise and allegorise all things which are abominations to God, these things including worshipping idols, witchcraft, occult, sorcery, homosexuality, sex outside heterosexual marriage, mistreating the needy and so on.



Burn them


In the time of the Apostles, many pagans had books which justified, approved of and gave details about practicing sorcery, occult and witchcraft. But when these people became Christians, they burnt these books. Acts 19:18-20 records: “And many who had believed came confessing and telling their deeds. Also, many of those who had practiced magic brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all. And they counted up the value of them, and it totaled fifty thousand pieces of silver. So the word of the Lord grew mightily and prevailed.”

Note that verse 20 above says the Word of the Lord grew mightily and prevailed in this environment of such godly repentance. So my suggestion to you is if you have any books, films, computer games or anything else which express approval of occult, witchcraft or sorcery, burn them. Free yourself from Satanic bondage. As Ephesians 4:27 says, “nor give place to the devil” (N.K.J.V.) or “Leave no (such) room or foothold for the devil – give no opportunity for him.” (Amplified Version)




Another one of Satan’s favourite tactics in turning unbelievers and Christians to sin is called gradualism. Gradualism involves making an evil thing acceptable by a slow step-by-step process. Gradualism does this by first slowly brainwashing people that the thing is not as bad as what was previously thought. The next step of gradualism is to convince people that the thing is actually good and should be tried.

One of Satan’s first shots in his war of gradualism in Western countries in relation to witchcraft and occult was the television show “Bewitched”. “Bewitched” presented witchcraft as a harmless activity of a good attractive married woman. “Bewitched” was a comedy which made witchcraft seem like light-hearted fun and fantasy.

In the 1960’s at the time “Bewitched” was first shown on television, nearly all Americans, Australians and British people opposed witchcraft. After that time, many popular magazines, movies and television shows have continued to defang and de-Satanise witchcraft and occult. Some popular psychologists like Carl Rogers have presented occult practices as being good things. [104]

Recently, I entered a popular secular bookshop and found next to the Harry Potter books two sorcery-occult kits especially designed for children. The first was called “A Starter’s Kit for Wizardry” and the second was called “Tarot”. The first pack contained a wizard’s cape and wand, a guide about how to progress from being a starter to being a fully qualified sorcerer and instructions about how to cast spells and practice real and not trick magic. The second pack had a book on how to use tarot cards by an expert in these occult practices and a pack of tarot cards. Satan’s intention is for readers of Harry Potter to graduate onto the next step – buying the children’s occult kits next to the books on the shelves.

When the first “Harry Potter” movie was shown in Australia in 2001, numerous Evangelical churches taught their people that there is nothing wrong with reading “Harry Potter” books and watching the movie. A few months later, a relative of mine saw a little 7 year old child of a couple from one of these churches, take a sorcerer’s cape and a book on how to cast spells to school. The boy also practiced casting spells on the other children.

I know another case in which a little child whose Evangelical churchgoing parents allowed him to watch Buffy, was teaching his friends in the playground of a Christian school how to cast spells like Buffy does.

Another thing which the Harry Potter books gradually and subtly train children to believe is children can obtain what they want through visualisation, mental concentration and witchcraft. This is in itself a demonic temptation for many naïve children.

Do not allow gradualism to lead your family to be tempted with becoming (Harry) potty or crazy about witchcraft and sorcery. Instead obey Romans 12:9 which commands “…Abhor what is evil…”


Avoid double standards and being a people-pleaser


As stated before, some Christians argue, “But before and after watching ‘Sabrina’, ‘Charmed’ and ‘Harry Potter’, I explain to my children the Biblical teaching that sorcery and witchcraft are evil. This therefore sanctifies our watching of such shows.”

There are two other great weaknesses with such an argument. First, if your children’s and your non-Christian family and friends know you watch such shows, this may encourage them to think God approves of sorcery and witchcraft. In Romans 14:13, Paul warns us not to do things which may trap or cause others to sin. If by watching such shows, I lead my churchgoing or non-churchgoing relatives or friends into sinning, I am sinning (see Romans 14:21).

Secondly, if you watch or permit your children to view such shows, you may confirm to non-Christian friends and relatives what they already think: “Christians are hypocrites. They say certain things are evil, but then they enjoy a certain amount of involvement in such things.”

Note in Romans 2:22, Paul accused some of the Jews of rightly abhorring idolatry while at the same time hypocritically robbing pagan temples in order to make a profit. Christians need to avoid similar double standards. We are contradicting ourselves when we say we abhor sorcery and witchcraft and say we regard it as an abomination like God does and then next we are enjoying watching it and are encouraging others to watch it also.

So-called “Christian” fictional books which are about witchcraft, occult and sorcery but which do not clearly reveal that such practices are evil and empowered by Satan, are guilty of sin also. They may be popular but they are not building God’s Kingdom nor establishing His absolute righteous standards on Earth. It is irrelevant whether their authors are born-again and have written other more godly books. Every human book must be appraised by the standards of God’s written Word.

Catholic writer J.J.R. Tolkien’s book “The Hobbit” has a wizard or sorcerer called Gandalf as a hero. This book teaches the ungodly deception that there are good wizards and good sorcerers who are known as white “wizards”. Tolkien wrote: “It appeared that Gandalf had been to a great council of white wizards, masters of lore and good magic…” [105] White wizards and white witches obtain their supernatural power from demons just like black wizards and black witches do.

In his book ‘Lord of the Rings’, J.R.R. Tolkien wrote about a great conflict between the supposedly good wise wizard Gandalf and the evil sorcerer Sauron and the wicked wizard Saruman. Here again is the Satanic lie that there is such a thing as good wizardry or good sorcery. Remember Isaiah 5:20 says: “Woe to those who call evil good…who put darkness for light…”


C.S. Lewis was a sincere Christian who taught some major unbiblical errors


C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was an Anglican scholar who was a tutor in English literature at Oxford University in England from 1925 to 1954 and the Chair of Medieval and Renaissance English at Cambridge University from 1954. Because he was a university professor and well-known writer, some Christians almost unquestionably accept his views on literature as being virtually an infallible authority which cannot be questioned. [106]

Lewis was converted to Christianity in the 1920’s. About many matters, he held orthodox Biblical attitudes. But note he also:


a)        was a syncretist who mixed some pagan philosophies with the Bible. For example, the Evangelical Dictionary of Theology records that Lewis’ book “‘The Abolition of Man’ is a philosophical statement arguing for the existence of the Tao, or objective moral or natural law.” Tao relates to Taoism which is a pagan eastern Chinese philosophy.

b)        was not opposed to theistic evolution. [107]

c)        did not believe the Bible was the Word of God but instead held a partly heretical liberal view that the Bible only contains the Word of God. [108]


The Christian author C.S. Lewis wrote many good things which were not contrary to the teachings of the Bible. But he also wrote about rings and a wardrobe which both had supernatural magical powers [109] and about supernatural magic [110] without him warning in these books that all miracles of sorcery and real magic are wicked in God’s eyes and demonic in origin.

In Matthew 24:24, Jesus predicted that before His Second Coming, false prophets would perform great Satan-empowered signs and wonders which would tempt even God’s own people to be deceived. It is possible that the present craze about “Sabrina”, “Harry Potter”, “The Lord of the Rings”, “Charmed” and so on is one part of a brilliant demonic preparation for the future attempt to deceive God’s people.

Christians need to start making some black and white moral stands about numerous issues instead of being worldly people-pleasing compromisers. Otherwise what will happen in future if there are very popular movies which have fictional or comedy scenes of children having intimate friendships with Satan – God’s wicked enemy – and which express approval of such wickedness? Will many compromising Christians take their children to such movies while just warning them beforehand and afterwards that it is wicked to communicate in a friendly way with Satan? Will they try to find hidden symbolic meanings in these wicked movies? Maybe they will foolishly try to say there are two Satans opposing each other – a big bad Satan and a supposedly “good” Satan who is on God’s side.

If you have compromised in the past with watching shows like “Sabrina” and “Charmed”, now is the time to repent, obtain God’s forgiveness and get rid of all Satanic influences in your life. Do not be deceived by the fine-sounding arguments of those who have double standards.

Jesus Christ was the perfect human. Hebrews 1:9 reveals He loved everything which was absolutely right and hated everything which was absolutely wrong: “You have loved righteousness – You have delighted in integrity, virtue and uprightness in purpose, thought and action – and You have hated lawlessness (injustice and iniquity)…” (Amp V). If we are truly in Christ, we will hate what He hates (see 1 John 2:6).


Rioting for “Harry Potter”, “Lord of the Rings” and “Buffy”


Acts 19:18-20 records that when many of the pagan and Jewish people of the city of Ephesus turned to the Lord Jesus Christ, they burned all of their books about magic, sorcery and witchcraft. Acts 19:23-41 then reveals that many other pagans in Ephesus rioted after so many of their fellow city-dwellers abandoned their old pagan practices.

I say this half in jest, but many churchgoers seem to have a similar reaction to Christians who wish to “burn” – rid their families and schools – of “Harry Potter” and “Lord of the Rings” books and television shows like “Charmed”, “Sabrina” and “Buffy”. The churchgoing devotees or lovers of “Harry Potter”, “Lord of the Rings”, “Charmed”, “Sabrina” and “Buffy” seem to be ready to riot against any Christian who would dare to challenge their loyal devotion to books which suggest that sorcery and witchcraft can be good things.


Modern Pharisaic hypocrisy


In Matthew 12:10-12, Jesus criticised the Pharisees for having hypocritical moral standards: “And behold, there was a man who had a withered hand. And they asked Him, saying, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?’ – that they might accuse Him. Then He said to them, ‘What man is there among you who has one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will not lay hold of it and lift it out? Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.’”

In Matthew 23:16-19, Jesus challenged more Pharisaic hypocrisy: “Woe to you, blind guides, who say, ‘Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obliged to perform it.’ Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifies the gold? And, ‘Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is obliged to perform it.’ Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that sanctifies the gift?”

Large numbers of churchgoers, many of whom are born-again and sincerely love God, have been deceived by the media and worldly academics into permitting their children to watch Harry Potter and other similar movies and television shows. Tragically, the world and the religious world has tricked these churchgoers into following some amazing double standards and hypocrisy of which any ancient Pharisee could have been proud.

For example some who love “Harry Potter” and “Lord of the Rings”, say that “Sabrina”, “Buffy” and “Charmed” are wicked shows. This is even though there are very few differences between any of them. Others say it is a sin to watch “Harry Potter”, “Charmed”, “Sabrina” and “Buffy” but it is right to watch “Lord of the Rings” because the latter was written by a Christian. But note it is true Tolken, the author of “Lord of the Rings” was a Roman Catholic but this does not necessarily mean he was a saved believer with eternal life. Also, just because a book is written by a churchgoer or even a regenerated believer does not mean God approves of it.

Some Christian parents permit their children to watch Harry Potter or Lord of the Rings and then cannot understand when their children insist on watching “Charmed” and/or “Buffy”. The children know there are little differences between any of these, but sadly the parents make subtle distinctions in their minds to justify their contradictory standards.

Over the centuries, numerous churchgoers have written books which condone or even advocate various types of wickedness. It is not only non-fiction authors who teach various things to their readers. Authors of fiction also teach various ideas to their readers in some ways. This is why God will hold all authors accountable according to similar principles found in James 3:1: “My brethren, let not many of you become teachers, knowing that we shall receive a stricter judgment.”




Christians who watch “Harry Potter”, “Sabrina”, “Buffy”, “Charmed”, Lord of the Rings”, “The Hobbit”, “Merlin” and so on are trying to be fence-sitters between the kingdom of light and the kingdom of darkness. But there can be no fence-sitting in this greatest battle in history. You either have to totally oppose anything to do with witchcraft, sorcery, occult, astrology and other manifestations of Satan’s kingdom or you are actually working for both kingdoms. You think you are working totally for God but He knows you are actually leading children to have a demon-inspired unhealthy deep interest in things God says are absolute abominations to Him. You are leading children this way by guiding them to read books or view films which not once condemn these activities of the kingdom of darkness and which never tell the truth that is Satan and demons who give occultists, sorcerers and witches their power to perform miracles (see Acts 16:16-18, 2 Thessalonians 2:9 and Revelation 16:14.


A sign that a large part of the Church is asleep


In Matthew 13:24-25, Jesus said: “Another parable He put forth to them, saying: ‘The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field; but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat and went his way.’”

In Matthew 13:39, Jesus said that the enemy was Satan. Satan planted harmless-looking weeds among the good wheat in God’s Kingdom while the owner’s men slept. The owner was symbolic of God and the men who slept were His servants. This is similar to how when God’s servants in His church are spiritually sleepy, Satan finds it easy to sow the wicked seeds in the Church. One of these wicked seeds is a compromising attitude to things which God hates.


Bible Study Questions


1.         What was unbiblical about the teachings of many university medical lecturers and physicians in the Middle Ages, 1500’s and 1600’s in relation to medical astrology?

2.         What does the Bible teach about witchcraft, sorcery, occult and psychic powers?

3.         Does God love sorcerers and witches or does He regard them as abominations? Or does He feel both ways about them?

4.         Explain how Romans 12:9, Isaiah 5:20 and 1 Corinthians 13:6 apply to Christians enjoying movies, shows or books which express approval of evils like witchcraft and sorcery.

5.         What is wrong with the argument that shows like “Sabrina”, “Charmed”, “Harry Potter” and “Merlin” are only fantasy or imaginative fiction, so they do not tempt young children into practicing sorcery and witchcraft?

6.         What is God’s attitude to so-called “white” witches and “white” wizards?

7.         On what cunning deception are shows and movies like “Sabrina”, “Charmed” and “Merlin” based?

8.         Explain what Satan’s tactic of gradualism means.



Another medieval author recorded Merlin assisting this rape


In his “Chapter 2 “How Uther Pendragon made war on the Duke of Cornwall, and how by the means of Merlin he lay by the Duchess and begat Arthur” in his book “Le Morte D’Arthur”, the medieval author Thomas Mallory also wrote how the sorcerer Merlin promised to supernaturally enable supposedly Christian King Uther Pendragon to have sex with the wife of the Duke of Cornwall. Mallory called her Ingraine instead of Ygerna. Mallory wrote: “Then Ulfius was glad, and rode on more than a pace till that he came to King Uther Pendragon, and told him he had met with Merlin.

‘Where is he?’ said the king.

‘Sir,’ said Ulfius, ‘he will not dwell long.’

Therewithal Ulfius was ware where Merlin stood at the porch of the pavilion’s door. And then Merlin was bound to come to the king. When King Uther saw him, he said he was welcome.

‘Sir,’ said Merlin ‘I know all your heart every deal. So ye will be sworn unto me as ye be a true king anointed, to fulfil my desire, ye shall have your desire.’

Then the king was sworn upon the four Evangelists.

‘Sir’, said Merlin, ‘this is my desire: the first night that ye shall lie by Igaine ye shall get a child on her, and when that is born, that it shall be delivered to me for to nourish there as I will have it; for it shall be your worship, and the child’s avail as mickle as the child is worth.’

‘I will well,’ said the king, ‘as thou wilt have it.’

‘Now make you ready,’ said Merlin, ‘this night ye shall lie with Igraine in the Castle of Tintagel, and ye shall be like the duke her husband, Ulfius shall be like Sir Brastias, a knight of the duke’s, and I will be like a knight that hight Sir Jordans, a knight of the duke’s. But wait ye make not many questions with her nor her men, but say ye are diseased, and so hie you to bed, and rise not on the morn till I come to you, for the Castle of Tintagel is but ten miles hence.’

So this was done as they devised. But the Duke of Tintagel espied how the king rode from the siege of Terrabil, and therefore that night he issued out of the castle at a postern for to have distressed the king’s host. And so, through his own issue, the duke himself was slain or-ever the king came at the Castle of Tintagel.

So after the death of the duke, King Uther lay with Igraine more than three hours after his death, and begat on her that night Arthur; and, or day came, Merlin came to the king, and bad him make him ready, and so he kissed the lady Igraine and departed in all haste. But when the lady heard tell of the duke her husband, and by all record he was dead or-ever King Uther came to her, then she marvelled who that might be that lay with her in likeness of her lord; so she mourned privily and held her peace.

Then all the barons by one assent prayed the king of accord betwixt the lady Igraine and him; the king gave them leave, for fain would he have been accorded with her. So the king put all the trust in Ulfius to entreat between them, so by the entreaty at the last the king and she met together.

‘Now will we do well,’ said Ulfius. ‘Our king is a lusty knight and wifeless, and my lady Igraine is a passing fair lady; it were great joy unto us all, and it might please the king to make her his queen.

Unto that they all well accorded and moved it to the king. And anon, like a lusty knight, he assented thereto with good will, and so in all haste they were married in a morning with great mirth and joy. [111]


      This book is a classic example of how pagan and syncretistic numerous parts of the Church are becoming. Syncretism refers to the mixing of pagan unbiblical philosophies and practices with the teachings of the Bible. The Gnostic cults who plagued the early Church engaged in similar mixings of pagan Roman and Greek philosophies and practices with Biblical teaching and led many Christians into deception.


[1] Michael Lapidge (Editor), “Archbishop Theodore – Commemorative Studies on His Life and Influence”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995, page 16.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid, page 17.

[5] Ibid, page 16, footnote 62.

[6] Ibid, page 16.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid, page 10.

[11] C.H. Talbot, “Medicine in Medieval England”, Olbourne, London, 1967, pages 10-11.

[12] Ibid, page 11.

[13] Ibid, page 29.

[14] Ibid, page 30.

[15] Beryl Rowland, “Medieval Woman’s Guide to Health”, The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio, 1981, page 12.

[16] Lloyd de Mause (editor), “The History of Childhood”, The Psychohistory Press, New York, 1974, page 148.

[17] Rowland, page 12.

[18] O. Grell and A. Cunningham, “Medicine and the Reformation”, Routledge, 1993, page 34.

[19] Ibid, pages 34, 39 and 44.

[20] Aristotle, “History of Animals”, 582a34-582b3.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Aristotle, “Generation of Animals”, 738a 16-17.

[23] Ibid, “Generation of Animals”, 767a 1-7. Aristotle foolishly claimed that the degree of moistness or dryness and heat or cold of parents also effected whether their offspring were male or female: “And those of a moister and more feminine state of body are more wont to beget females, and a liquid (moist) semen causes this more than a thicker; now all these characteristics come of deficiency in natural heat. Again, more males are born if copulation takes place when north than when south winds are blowing: for animals’ bodies are more liquid when the wind is in the south, so that they produce more residue – and more residue is harder to concoct; hence the semen of the males is more liquid (moist), and so is the discharge of the menstrual fluids in women…The shepherds also say that it not only makes a difference in the production of males and females if copulation takes place during northern or southerly winds, but even the animals while copulating look towards the south or north: so small a thing will sometimes turn the scale and cause cold or heat, and these again influence generation.” (“Generation of Animals”, 766b 33-37 and 767a 9-13).

[24] Aristotle, “On Plants”, 824b 11-12.

[25] Hippocrates, “Airs, Water and Places”, 2 and 11.

[26] “New Age Encyclopedia”, Collins, London, 1963, page 334.

[27] Ibid, page 853.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Ibid, page 1065.

[30] Ibid, page 1099.

[31] Ibid, page 73.

[32] Hesiod, “Works and Days”, 586-588.

[33] Jacques Ferrand, “A Treatise on Lovesickness”, edited and translated by Donald Beecher and Massimo Ciavolella, Syracuse University Press, New York, 1990, page 410, footnote 38.

[34] Ibid, page 29.

[35] Athenaeus, “Deipnosophistae”, Volume 3, William Heinemann, London, 1957, Book 7, 276d.

[36] Grell and Cunningham, page 33.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Dr Jacques Ferrand, “Of Lovesickness or Erotic Melancholy”, Chapter 21.

[45] Ambroise Pare, ‘Works’, Milford House, New York, 1968, pages 901 and 946.

[46] Ibid, page 985.

[47] Dr William Harvey, “Anatomical Exercitations Concerning the Generation of Living Creatures”, James Young, London, 1653, page 476.

[48] Jacobus Rueff, “The Expert Midwife”, Book 2, Chapter 5 entitled “How the infant is conditioned…”, page 66.

[49] Ibid.

[50] James Guillemeau, “Childbirth or the Happy Delivery of Women”, A. Hatfield, London, 1612, Book 1, Chapter 8.

[51] Ibid, Book 2, Chapter 8.

[52] “Collin’s New Age Encyclopedia”, page 821 and O. Bettman and P. Hench, ‘A Pictorial History of Medicine’, Charles Thomas, Springfield, 1956, page 148.

[53] Ibid, page 45.

[54] Ibid.

[55] Bettman and Hench, page 148.

[56] Grell and Cunningham, pages 37-46.

[57] Ibid, page 38.

[58] Ibid, page 39.

[59] Ibid.

[60] Ibid, page 42.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Grell and Cunningham, page 46.

[63] See Acts 13:6-11, 16:16-18, 19:19, Galatians 5:20, Revelation 21:8, 1 Chronicles 10:13, Isaiah 8:19-20, 2 Chronicles, 33:6, Jeremiah 27:9-10, Micah 5:12 and Malachi 3:5.

[64] See 1 Samuel 28:3-20, 1 Chronicles 10:13, Acts 8:9-11, 13:6-11, 16:16-18 and Revelation 13:11-18.

[65] W.E. Vine, “Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words”, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1985, pages 266 and 519.

[66] J. Louw and E. Nida, “Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament”, United Bible Societies, New York, page 303.

[67] Eusebius of Caesarea, “Oration in Praise of Constantine”, 5.

[68] Ibid, 11.

[69] Irenaeus, “Against Heresies”, Book 1, Chapter 18:2.

[70] Ibid, Book 1, Chapter 18:3.

[71] Ibid, Book 1, Chapters 3:2 and 18:4.

[72] Ibid, Book 1, Chapter 18:4.

[73] Ibid, Book 1, Chapter 1:3.

[74] Irenaeus, “Against Heresies”, Book 1, Chapter 8.

[75] Epiphanius of Salamis, “Panarion”, Chapter “Gnostics”.

[76] Humphrey Carpenter (Editor), “The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien”, Houghton Mifflin Coy, Boston, 1981, pages 232-233.

[77] Ibid, page 262

[78] Ibid, page 41.

[79] Ibid, page 237.

[80] Ibid, page 121.

[81] C.S. Lewis, “Of this and Other Worlds”, Collins, London, 1982, page 115.

[82] Ibid, page 235.

[83] Ibid, page 237.

[84] Ibid, page 284.

[85] Ibid, page 332.

[86] Glenn J. Giokaris, “The Philosophical Journey of C.S. Lewis”, at www.Stanford.edu/group/wwi/spring2000/Glenn/Lewis.htm

[87] Ibid, page 189.

[88] Ibid, page 207.

[89] Ibid, page 24.

[90] Ibid, page 42.

[91] Ibid, page 202.

[92] Ibid, page 201.

[93] Ibid, page 355.

[94] Walter Elwell (Editor), “Evangelical Dictionary of Theology”, Baker, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1984, page 959.

[95] Ibid, page 390.

[96] WWW.leaders.com/humanities/colson-myth.html

[97] Bishop Geoffery of Monmouth, “The History of the Kings of Britain”, Part 4 “The House of Constantine”, VI, 17-19.

[98] Ibid, Part 5, Chapter 7, 4.

[99] Ibid, Part 6, Chapter 8, 19-20.

[100] Thomas Mallory, “Le Morte D’Arthur, Book 1, Chapter 2.

[101] Ibid, Book 1, Chapter 5.

[102] Ibid, Book 1, Chapter 8.

[103] Gleason L. Archer Jr, “A Survey of Old Testament Introduction”, Moody Press, Chicago, page 175.

[104] Carl Rogers, “A Way of Being”, Houhton Mifflin, Boston, 1980, pages 83, 91-92, 313-314 and 344.

[105] J.R.R. Tolkien, “The Hobbit”, Harper and Collins, 1990, page 266.

[106] Elwell, page 630.

[107] Ibid.

[108] Ibid.

[109] C.S. Lewis, “The Magician’s Nephew”, Chapters 1 and 15.

[110] C.S. Lewis, “The Last Battle”, Chapter 13.

[111] Thomas Mallory, “Le Morte D’Arthur, Book 1, Chapter 2.

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