Imitating the Pharisees’ Wicked Exceptions

If we desire to know God’s will, we must avoid a great problem which the Pharisees in Christ’s time had.

Mark 7:9-13 records Jesus said that in relation to numerous matters, many or all of the Pharisees in Christ's time interpreted the written Word of God in ways which resulted in them forming man-made exceptions to God’s absolute commands and teachings:

‘He said to them, “All too well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’, and, ‘He who curses father or mother, let him be put to death.’ But you say, ‘If a man says to his father or mother, “Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban”’ (that is, a gift to God); then you no longer let him do anything for his father or his mother, making the word of God of no effect through your tradition which you have handed down. And many such things you do.”’

In this example, Christ showed that many or all of the Pharisees and scribes were teaching that if grown children claimed that their money is a gift to God, they did not have to help their needy father and mother. This is a man-made exception to God’s commands and teachings about this issue. Jesus said that this teaching of the Pharisees and scribes was in disobedience to God’s Mosaic Covenant commands ‘Honor your father and mother” and “He who curses father or mother, let him be put to death.’

These two latter commands do not specifically mention helping your needy father or mother. But note Jesus taught these two general commands about honouring and not cursing our father and mother were broad enough to not just involve our words as their children. These two commands also include honouring our father and mother through our loving actions towards them.

This ridiculous Pharisaic teaching recorded in Mark 7:9-13 said it was right to disobey God’s command about honouring our parents in order to obey God’s command about keeping  our sworn oaths or vows. But note any vow to do something contrary to the commands of God’s written Word is a great sin in itself.


Their many exceptions expressed their lawlessness

In Mark 7:9-13, Jesus revealed that many or all of the Pharisees and scribes were making their own exceptions to many other commands of God. He said: ‘…And many such things you do.’ In Matthew 23:28, Jesus said that many or all of the Pharisees were ‘full…of lawlessness’. One aspect of their lawlessness was their excusing themselves from obeying many of God’s commands through their man-made exceptions. Because the scribes were trained like lawyers, they probably used many brilliant arguments to convince others of their false exceptions to God’s commands in His written Word.

In Matthew 23:16-22, Jesus Christ again accused many or all of the Pharisees and scribes of teaching man-made exceptions to God’s commands about swearing oaths before Him:

‘Woe to you, blind guides, who say, “Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obliged to perform it”. Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifies the gold? And, “Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is obliged to perform it”. Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that sanctifies the gift? Therefore he who swears by the altar, swears by it and by all things on it. He who swears by the temple, swears by it and by Him who dwells in it. And he who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and by Him who sits on it.’


Another example of religious hypocrisy

A similar form of religious hypocrisy is recorded in Luke 13:10-17. Jesus healed someone on the Sabbath whose life was not in danger. As a result, the ruler of the Jewish synagogue rebuked Him. In response, Jesus called the man a ‘hypocrite’ saying in verses 15-16:

‘The Lord then answered him and said, “Hypocrite! Does not each one of you on the Sabbath loose his ox or his donkey from the stall, and lead it away to water it? So ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has bound – think of it – for eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath.”’

On the Sabbath, many Pharisees and other Jews would take their donkey somewhere to give it water. In the Jewish Mishnah, various man-made exceptions are given to God’s Sabbath command. For example, animals could be led by a chain or something similar as long as nothing was carried (Shabbath 5:1) and water could be drawn for them and poured into a trough as long as the man did not hold a bucket for the animal to drink from (Erubin 20b, 21a). The Mishnah is probably a good reflection to some extent of earlier beliefs of some or many Jewish groups in Christ’s time.

Because the Jews mentioned in Luke 13:10-17 believed miraculous healing on the Sabbath was not a God-approved exception to the general Sabbath command, they condemned Jesus. These Jews had been caught in a Satan-inspired web of their own interpretations of God’s broad Sabbath command and their own man-made list of exceptions to it.


God’s grace, repentance, faith and their fruits

God’s grace provides believers with salvation, redemption, a right standing before Him, adoption and many other wonderful things. But He never intended that we would use His grace as an excuse so we could repeatedly deliberately disobey His commands (see Romans 6:1-2, 6:15, Titus 2:11-14 and Hebrews 10:26-31).

 Romans 2:4 says: ‘…the goodness of God leads you to repentance.’ Do not be like the ungodly churchgoing hypocrites in Jude 4 who used the teachings on God’s grace as an excuse for practicing sexual immorality.

In 2 Corinthians 7:1, Colossians 3:22, Hebrews 12:28-29 and 1 Peter 2:17, God commands New Covenant believers to fear Him. A person with saving faith in God will fear Him (see Psalm 115:11).

Two fruits or signs that a person fears God is he will hate evil and depart or turn from known evil. Proverbs 8:13 says: ‘The fear of the Lord is to hate evil…’ Proverbs 16:6 declares: ‘…And by the fear of the Lord one departs from evil.’ Psalm 55:19 shows those who are not willing to change do not fear God. Psalm 112:1 promises: ‘…Blessed is the man who fears the Lord, who delights greatly in His commandments.’


Using similar false principles to justify wickedness

Through learning about the false Bible interpretation principles of many or all the Pharisees and the evils of modern situational ethics and other unbiblical philosophies, we can hopefully avoid similar errors ourselves. This is especially because in the liberal compromising wing of the modern Church, there are those who follow similar false practices. By using clever arguments and worldly wisdom, they try to justify:

         homosexuality in the circumstance when two men “love” each other. But the Scriptures do not say God approves of this exception to His general commands and teachings against homosexuality (see Romans 1:26-27, 1 Corinthians 6:9, 1 Timothy 1:10 and Jude 7). The official magazine of the Anglican Church in Sydney in Australia, ‘Southern Cross’ (November 2001, page 13) reports that ‘over 100 sexually active homosexual priests have now been ordained’ by the Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. The Episcopal Church in the U.S. will be held accountable by God for making their own exceptions to His commands.

         sex before marriage and adultery in the situation when the couple supposedly ‘love’ each other. The Bible nowhere approves of this exception, but instead proclaims the guilt involved in all acts of adultery and sex before marriage. [1] In Revelation 2:20, Jesus rebuked the Church of Tryatira for allowing a false prophetess named Jezebel to teach and seduce His people that it was right to commit sexual immorality.

         not using moderate smacks as a form of discipline for their own children. Proverbs 13:24, 20:30, 22:15, 23:13-14, 29:15 and Hebrews 12:5-11 teach us to smack but do not tell us to damage our children’s bodies by bashing their heads or vital organs.


Is stealing sometimes justified?

In Ephesians 4:28, God commands us not to steal. But the famous theologian Thomas Aquinas invented his own man-made exception to God’s command by arguing that if a person is in extreme poverty and takes another person’s property, this is not stealing. Aquinas wrote: ‘If one is to speak quite strictly, it is improper to say that using somebody else’s property taken out of extreme necessity is theft. For such necessity renders what a person takes to support his life his own.’ [2]

God’s answer to poverty is not stealing but working to provide for our needs, individuals helping those in poverty, the churches helping the poor and the nation itself helping the poor. [3]


They try to justify murder

Proverbs 14:12 and 16:25 warn us:

‘There is a way that seems right to a man, but its end is the way of death.’

In his book ‘Medicine, Society and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds’, [4] Darrel Amundsen provides a comprehensive historical account of the practices of abortion and the killing of unwanted children after birth in ancient pagan Greece and Rome. Amundsen says that in the ‘Life of Lycurgus’, the ancient writer Plutarch records that in Sparta in Greece the Spartan elders examined all new-born babies and ordered that any who were not well-built and sturdy were to be killed by leaving them in the bush at the foot of Mount Taygetus. [5] Such new-borns starved or froze to death or were eaten by wild animals. The Spartans justified murdering these children by using the utilitarian argument that these children were of no benefit to the Spartan society. [6]

The famous Greek pagan philosopher Aristotle taught that any child who was deformed in any way should be killed and abortion should be used as a means of population control. [7]

The Roman philosopher Cicero (106-43 B.C.) wrote that one of the Roman laws in the Twelve Tables – an official law code supposedly compiled in the fifth century B.C. Rome – required that any deformed child be killed quickly.[8] The Stoic Roman philosopher Seneca (4 B.C.-65 A.D.) who educated Emperor Nero as a child, wrote: ‘…we drown even children who at birth are weakly and abnormal. Yet it is not anger, but reason that separates the harmful from the sound’. [9] Seneca justified such murders on the basis of the utilitarian practical argument that these killings were based on the long-term good of the individual and the future welfare of Roman society.

In his writing ‘How to recognize the newborn that is worth rearing’, the famous ancient doctor Soranus of Ephesus who worked in Rome in the first and second centuries A.D. and was ‘called by some the most important figure in gynaecology in the ancient world’ [10], said that after a birth of a child, the midwife should examine various specified bodily parts of the new-born to see if these parts functioned properly in order to determine if the child is worthwhile to be reared. He then sanctioned murdering imperfect babies by saying, ‘And by conditions contrary to those mentioned, the infant not worth rearing is recognized’. [11]

Up until the 1800’s, many Hindus in India threw their children to alligators in the supposedly ‘holy’ Ganges River. [12] Many Eskimos, Tibetans and Natchez Indians also cruelly murdered some of their defenceless new-born infants. [13]


Relevant Bible verses

The Bible has a number of verses which relate to unborn babies in their mothers’ wombs. In Exodus 21:22-23, God gave the following command to the Israelites:

‘If men fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that she gives birth prematurely, yet no lasting harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman’s husband imposes on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. But if any lasting harm follows, then you shall give life for life.’

In God’s above instructions, He reveals He regards the killing of a child in the womb as being a very wicked act deserving of death.

In Hebrew, the expression ‘gives birth prematurely’ here is ‘ala yeled’ which literally means ‘and goes forth her children’. [14] The Hebrew word ‘yeled’ means ‘child, son, boy, children, descendants, youth’ [15] and ‘child, son, youth’. [16] ‘Yeled’ is used in many Bible verses to refer to real children of various ages and not to just supposedly sub-human foetuses. [17]

Exodus 21:22-25 refers to children being born prematurely but does not specify any limits about how young the child is born. For example, this passage does not say that the punishments only apply if the baby is born when or after he/she is say 30 weeks. Therefore Exodus 22:21-25 reveals God regards all babies in the womb at any age as being real children and not sub-human creatures.

Also note that in Hebrew, the word ‘ala’ does not mean ‘a miscarriage’ even though the New International Version wrongly translates it as this. ‘Ala’ instead means ‘go up, climb, ascend’. [18] So Exodus 21:22 is not saying that God regards the killing of a child in the mother’s womb as being something undeserving of punishments. Instead this verse teaches that if a man hurts a pregnant woman, resulting in a premature birth which causes no permanent harm to the child or mother, no punishment is due.

When Exodus 21:24-25 refers to ‘eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand…burn for burn, wound for wound…’, it is not saying babies in the womb have teeth or that the man who hurt the mother was able to burn the unborn baby. Instead it is putting in one list the types of injuries which the man could have inflicted on either the mother or baby.

Judges 13:7 records that from the moment he was conceived in his mother’s womb, Samson was both appointed as a Nazirite to God and was a ‘child’ and not a sub-human creature. In Hebrew, the word ‘child’ in this verse is ‘na’ar’ which is also used of a baby boy which has just been born (see Exodus 2:6), Isaac as a little boy (see Genesis 22:12) and a youth, for example, Joseph at seventeen years (see Genesis 37:2). In the Bible, God does not make pagan distinctions between sub-human foetuses and children who are born. Instead He regards them as equally human.

Luke 1:15 records John the Baptist was filled by the Holy Spirit ‘even from his mother’s womb’ (N.K.J.V.) or ‘while yet in his mother’s womb’ (N.A.S.B.). God’s Spirit would not have filled John while he was in his mother’s womb if he was only sub-human. When John was only about 6 months in his mother’s womb, he was so fully human that he lept for joy when Mary greeted John’s mother (see Luke 1:26, 39-45 and 56-57).

Also note in Jeremiah 1:5, God says: ‘Before I formed you in the womb I knew you; before you were born I sanctified you; and I ordained you a prophet to the nations’ and not ‘before I formed your sub-human foetal form or your body in the womb’. In other words, God was saying that when Jeremiah was in the womb, he was a real human and not just a sub-human creature nor mere physical body.

I recently read parts of a book on ethics in medicine by a liberal compromising supposedly ‘Christian’ medical doctor. This fellow approved of abortions in various situations. He argued that Exodus 21:22-25 refers only to injuries to the mother and not to the baby. He said proof of this was the Jewish Pharisee Josephus and the Jewish writing, the Talmud interpreted these verses to mean this.

But note the Pharisees and the Talmud are well-known for their false interpretations of other Bible verses. They are not perfectly reflective of how God’s Old Testament Prophets would have interpreted various Bible verses. For example, contrary to Deuteronomy 24:1, Josephus taught it was right for Jewish men to divorce their wives for any reason. [19]

The Talmud approves of the foolish practice of trying to cure patients by making them bleed. [20] The Talmud also teaches the superstition that if a bone sticks in our throat, we can be cured by putting a similar bone on our head and saying: ‘One, one, gone down, swallowed, swallowed, gone down, one, one’. [21]


Augustine introduced Aristotle’s foolish pagan idea

Many centuries ago, Bishop Augustine of Hippo (354-430 A.D.) introduced a pagan idea among some Christians about abortion. He taught the pagan Greek philosopher Aristotle’s idea that male foetuses only became fully human at forty days and female foetuses at eighty days. [22] On the basis of Augustine’s ‘Christianised’ version of Aristotle’s pagan, foolish anti-female philosophy, some Christians even up until today assume it is right to murder unborn infants in say the first 40 days after conception.

After the time of Christ, some Jewish rabbis also taught that during the first 40 days after conception, the foetus was not a human but was ‘simply water’. [23] On the basis of this foolish assumption, they also permitted abortion for many different reasons. [24]


Supposed abortion exceptions

Tragically, I know some modern-day liberal compromising Christians who try to justify abortions in certain situations. For example, they argue that if a girl becomes pregnant in her early teens or a female becomes pregnant because of rape or incest or a woman is pregnant with a baby with a physical deformity, the baby should be aborted. They claim these are justified exceptions to the Biblical command against murder in Romans 13:9 and Matthew 15:19-20. But the Bible itself not once justifies such exceptions.

If babies are results of rape or incest or early teenage pregnancy and their mothers do not want them, the mothers should give birth to them and then have them adopted. This is a far better alternative than murdering the babies. Two wrongs do not make a right.

In the 1973 American Supreme Court’s decision on Roe verses Wade, the Court ruled that abortions could be done legally even if the unborn baby was up to 9 months as long as the mother’s physical or emotional health was in danger. [25] This decision by these American judges basically sanctions abortion on demand in almost any circumstance.

Note in the small percentage of pregnancies in which mothers’ lives are in danger, both their and their babies lives can nearly always at present be saved by a caesarean operation after the babies are about 25-26 weeks.

In the case of human foetuses implanting in their mothers’ fallopian tubes or abdominal cavity instead of the womb, the unborn babies always die after a period of time. Also, frequently the mothers of such poor pregnancies die. So in such cases we need to adopt a similar practice to that involved with Siamese twins whose lives would be in danger if they are not separated but who may still die even if they are separated. In such cases, it is better to save one life than to see both die.

If after separating Siamese twins who will both die if not separated, one dies, this is not murder but a sad unwanted result of trying to save life. Therefore I believe the babies who are implanted in fallopian tubes or abdominal cavities should be removed but not deliberately killed. After they are removed, they will rapidly die on their own. But this is different from deliberately killing them with chemicals, medical instruments or hands. This is like a doctor permitting a dying adult cancer patient to die without deliberately killing him by a lethal injection.

The above is similar to a situation in which a woman and her baby are caught in a house fire. The baby has a terminal illness. The father has only time to save one of them. He grabs the unconscious mother and saves her life. He leaves the baby because he knows it will die soon anyway. He has not murdered the baby.

Also, if a pregnant mother has cancer or a dangerous disease which requires surgery, treatment or medicines which result in the unborn baby dying, this is not deliberate murder but is an unintended secondary result of trying to save the mothers’ life. In addition, if the unborn baby is less than 24 weeks, the baby would die anyway if the mother died of an untreated cancer or disease.

Recently in the United States, the practice of abortion has spread to doctors and nurses killing physically handicapped babies after their birth. Some American hospitals have been doing this since the 1970’s. They murder the babies by deliberately starving them to death. For example, a 1973 report in the New England Journal of Medicine openly named a hospital in the American state of Connecticut which was killing babies in this way. [26] This is similar to what the ancient pagan Romans and Greeks did and what the wicked dictator, Adolf Hitler commanded his Nazi doctors to do.

In 1996, the abortion rate in Australia was 140,000 unborn babies a year. [27] Proof that most Australian women who are murdering their babies through abortion are doing it for reasons other than rape or dangers to their own or their babies’ health are the following figures from South Australia. In 1975, 94.7% of abortions were done for supposed mental problems, 0.2% for sexual assault and 3.2% for diagnosed or possible physical health problems for the mother or child. [28] In 1976, 1977 and 1978, the supposed mental problems category rose to 96%. This mental problem category is just a fancy name for those who do not want their unborn babies.

In Proverbs 17:15, God gives a strong warning to us not to try to justify or make excuses for people who do wicked things contrary to His will: ‘He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the just, both of them alike are an abomination to the Lord.’



Some Christians support murdering those who are dying with certain serious illnesses or assisting them to murder themselves. This latter practice is called euthanasia. But the Bible does not anywhere approve of this exception to God’s commands against murder.

Euthanasia has been legal in Holland for many years. But note a survey of 405 Dutch doctors, published in the Journal of Medical Ethics (February 1999, 25:16-21), found that in 20% of euthanasia cases in Holland the patients did not personally request it.

Also in the official Remmelink Report of 1991, it was found that 14% of patients who were killed by Dutch doctors in 1990 and who did not request death, were mentally competent enough at the point before being killed to be able to consent to death or not. [29] This is despite the fact that the euthanasia-approving Royal Dutch Medical Association has written in its official guidelines for euthanasia in 1987: ‘If there is no request from the patient, then proceeding with the termination of his life is juridically a matter of murder or killing, and not of euthanasia.’ [30]  

Amazingly, in 1991, about 49% of American born-again Christians believed in euthanasia. [31]

In a 1998 survey of 1892 American doctors, whose specialities were more likely to receive requests for euthanasia, it was found that 54% of euthanasia deaths by lethal injections were requested by a family member or partner and not by the patient. [32] Imagine if these family members or partners wanted the patient to be killed because they had a grudge against the person or wanted his or her money!

What makes this whole situation even worse is that many cases of euthanasia are never officially reported or checked by government authorities. For example in Holland, the above mentioned survey of 405 Dutch doctors found almost two thirds of cases of euthanasia and assisted suicide in 1995 were not officially reported.

Note, however, there is a difference between the murderous practice of euthanasia and a doctor rightly permitting a dying patient with an incurable sickness to die. In addition, giving extra pain-killers to a suffering dying patient is not murder even if these drugs hasten death as a side effect. This is because the intention is to help the patient not suffer while they are alive. The intention is not to deliberately kill them through these drugs.

We must follow the teachings of God’s written Word and not the writings of those doctors and psychiatrists who try to justify evil. For example, one of the top German psychiatrists in the 1920’s, Alfred Hoche co-authored the book ‘The Release of the Destruction of Life Devoid of Value’. [33] This book provided the later Nazi exterminators with an academic justification for murdering various unwanted groups in Germany – the physically and mentally handicapped and those with mental problems.

Similarly the academic research of Ernst Reudin, professor of psychiatry at Basel and Munich in Germany in the early 1900’s supposedly ‘proved’ mental sicknesses were caused by hereditary factors.[34] This ‘latest research’ at the time provided ‘scientific’ reasons for the Nazi’s compulsory sterilization law which was a forerunner of their later mass murdering of mental patients.

Over 5,000 handicapped children were murdered by German doctors and their assistants working for the Nazi government. [35] At a medical clinic near Munich in 1940, Dr Pfannmuller told some official German visitors, ‘We have here children aged one to five. All those creatures represent for me as a National Socialist “living burdens”…a burden for the nation.’ [36] The well-fed, overweight ‘good’ doctor then displayed a whimpering skeletal little child and explained how they slowly starved the child to death: ‘Naturally we don’t stop their food straight away. That would cause too much fuss. We gradually reduce their portions. Nature then takes care of the rest.’ [37] These horrific evils happened in the most educationally and scientifically advanced nation on Earth at the time.

Assisted by four psychiatrists, the Nazi Phillip Bouhler from 1939-1941 organised the murder of about 71,000 adult patients who were physically handicapped, mentally ill or unable to look after themselves. [38] Their murderers gave these innocent victims poison injections or put them in gas chambers. The medical authorities sent letters to the murdered adults’ loved ones lying that the former died from pneumonia or another infectious disease.

The Protestant Pastor Braune complained about these murders and was arrested by the German secret police. [39] After the Roman Catholic bishops protested in 1940 and other churchgoers criticised what was happening, Hitler stopped the programme in August 1941. [40]

Euthanasia is a man-made exception to God’s command against murder. It opens the door to other future wicked supposedly ‘justified’ murders. An example of this would be people who are greatly suffering from schizophrenia and seemingly unsolvable emotional and mental problems, saying, ‘I cannot stand this suffering anymore. So I’m going to have Doctor Murder and my relatives come and put me out of my misery.’


Bible Study Questions


1.        What were the errors of the Pharisees in relation to making exceptions to God’s absolute commands and teachings?

2.       What Bible verses reveal God’s will in relation to the issues of homosexuality, sex before marriage, adultery, smacking our children, abortion and euthanasia?

3.       What does fearing God mean? What are the fruits or results of fearing God?

4.        Discuss any man-made exceptions to God’s commands and teachings which you know have sinfully been approved of by modern churchgoers!


[1] See Matthew 5:27-30, 1 Corinthians 6:9, 6:13-18, 2 Corinthians 12:21, Ephesians 5:3-7, Colossians 3:5-6 and 1 Thessalonians 4:2-4.

[2] Richard Miller, ‘Casuistry and Modern Ethics’, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996, page 21.

[3] See Ephesians 4:28, 2 Thessalonians 3:7-12, Proverbs 19:15, Matthew 25:31-46, Galatians 2:10, 1 Timothy 6:17-19, James 2:14-17, Acts 11:28-30, 1 Corinthians 16:1-3 and 2 Corinthians 8:1-9:15.

[4] The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1996.

[5] Ibid, page 57.

[6] Ibid, page 58.

[7] Ibid, page 57.

[8] Ibid, pages 60-61.

[9] Ibid, page 60.

[10] Roderick McGrew, ‘Encyclopedia of Medical History’, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985, page 123.

[11] Ibid, page 62.

[12] ‘Collier’s Encyclopedia’, Volume 12, Macmillan, New York, 1991, page 776.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Jay Green, ‘The Interlinear Bible – Hebrew-Greek-English’, Sovereign Grace Publishers, Lafayette, page 66.

[15] Brown, Driver and Briggs, ‘Hebrew and English Lexicon’, Hendrickson, Peabody, 1996, page 409.

[16] Harris, Archer and Waltke, page 378.

[17] See Genesis 21:8, 21:14, 21:15, 42:22, Exodus 1:17, 1:18, 2:3, 2:7, 2:10, Ruth 4:16, 2 Samuel 12:15, 12:18, 1 Kings 14:12, 17:21, 2 Kings 4:18, Daniel 1:4 and 1:10.

[18] Harris, Archer and Waltke, page 666 and Brown, Driver and Briggs, page 748.

[19] Josephus, ‘Antiquities’, Book 4, Chapter 8, 23,253.

[20] R. Numbers and D. Amundsen, ‘Caring and Curing’, The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986, pages 18 and 20.

[21] Ibid, page 20.

[22] Leonard Sweet, ‘Health and Medicine in the Evangelical Tradition’, Trinity Press, Valley Forge, 1994, page 101 and Amundsen, page 269.

[23] R. Numbers and D. Amundsen, page 31.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Elwell, page 5.

[26] Ibid, page 155.

[27] “Right to Life News”, June 1996.

[28] R.J. Cameron, “Social Indicators – Australia”, No 3 1980, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, page 35.

[29] ‘All Life Matters’ magazine, Right to Life Association (N.S.W.), March 2000, page 4.

[30] Ibid.

[31] ‘Christianity Today’ magazine, 16th December, 1991, page 50.

[32] ‘All Life Matters’ magazine, March 2000, page 5.

[33] M. Daly ‘Gyn/ecology’, Beacon Press, Boston, 1978, page 297.

[34] Ibid.

[35] B.J. Elliott, ‘Hitler and Germany’, Longman, London, 1991, page 124.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.



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